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Flashcards in Communicating in Emergencies Deck (10)
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1

Describe how to control communication as a human factor.

  • Keep everyone on the same page and ensure there are no surprises.
  • Maintain situational awareness
  • Make sure everyone knows what's going on
    • 'Shared mental model' 
  • Establish safe environment so everyone can contribute
  • Co-ordinate tasks
  • Stabilise emotions

2

Describe how to coordinate tasks in an emergency situation.

  • Lots of jobs to be done.
  • Need to be done in the right order, by the right person:
    • Support airway
    • Assess breathing 
    • Assess circulation, insert canula, send blood tests
    • Gather more information, speak to family
    • Documentation
    • Team leadership
    • Phone specialist
    • Prepare medication

3

How do you stabilise emotions in an emergency situation?

  • Resuscitation critically ill patients is stressful.
  • Use structured communication methods to stabilise emotions:
    • SBAR
    • ABCDE

4

Describe factors which may cause a communication failure.

  • Physical constraints such as noise - A&E is busy and this can be a problem.
  • Lack of familiarity with the team.
  • Differing communication styles
    • Nurses tend to be trained 'not to diagnose' and broad and narrative in descriptions ('paint the big picture').
    • Critical care physicians tend to want focussed information and get to the question. 
  • Authority gradient / hierarchy / power distance - there needs to be an environment where everyone is confident enough to say what they are thinking. 
  • Use of jargon or abbreviations. 
  • Cognitive biases and emotional disturbance leading to misinterpretation. 
  • Cognitive load / focus on other tasks. 

5

What are the different communication strategies (models) used for communicating in emergencies?

  • ISBAR(D)
  • IMIST
  • Closed loop communication
  • Graded assertiveness

6

How would you speak up in an emergency situation if you felt something wasn't right?

  • Be respectful
  • Be assertive
  • Don't 'hint and hope'
  • Focus on the problem, not who is right or wrong

7

Describe ISBAR(D)

  • ISBAR(D)
    • I = introduction 
    • S = situation
    • B = background
    • A = assessment
    • R = recommendation
    • D = decision

8

Describe IMIST

  • IMIST
    • I = identification / introduction
    • M = mechanism of injury / medical complaint
    • I = injuries / information related to the complaint
    • S = signs and symptoms
    • T = treatment 

9

Describe closed-loop communication.

Allocation tasks directly by using names and eye contact. Do not leave any ambiguity about who is supposed to be doing what.

10

Describe graded assertiveness.

  • Probe - "Do you know that...?"
  • Alert - "Can we reassess the situation?"
  • Challenge - "Please stop what you are doing while..."
  • Emergency - "STOP what you are doing"