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Flashcards in Sore Throat Deck (29)
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1

What is the pharynx?

12cm flattened tube extending from the base of the skull to the oesophagus

2

Describe the mulsulature of the pharynx

  • Inner longitudinal layer
  • Outer circular layer composed of superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles.

3

Describe the divisions of the pharynx

  1. Nasopharynx - base of skull to soft palate
  2. Oropharynx - soft palate to floor of vallecula
  3. Hypopharynx - floor of vallecula to oesophagus

4

What are the functions of the larynx?

  • Protection of trachea and bronchi
  • Assisting respiration 
  • Phonation 
  • Effort closure

5

What is the mainstream treatment for common sore throat?

  • Fluids
  • NSAIDs
  • Rest 
  • Steroids (for extreme swelling)

6

Describe the clinical presentation of strep throat

  • Red throat and tonsils
  • Neck nodes
  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
  • Odynophagia (pain on swallowing)
  • Caused by group B streptococcus
    • Treat with penicillin

7

Describe the clinical presentation of tonsilitis

  • Sore throat 
  • Dysphagia 
  • Fever

8

What is the treatment for tonsilitis?

  • Reassurance
  • Usually add in antibiotic - penicillin

9

What are the SIGN guidelines for tonsillectomy?

  • 7 episodes in one year
  • Bleeding and pain

10

What is quinsy?

  • Peritonsillar abscess
  • Complication of tonsillitis
  • 2x is indication for tonsillectomy

11

What is the key sign of quinsy?

Trismus (patient can't open mouth)

12

What action is required for a patient presenting with quinsy?

DRAIN IT

13

What is glandular fever?

  • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Epstein Barr virus

14

What is the clinical presentation of glandular fever?

  • Large tonsils
  • Greyish / white exudate
  • Neck lymphadenopathy
  • Monospot

15

Describe croup

  • Laryngotracheobronchitis
  • Occurs in babies 6m-3y
  • Viral
  • Gradual onset

16

Describe the onset and symptoms of croup

  • Gradual onset
  • URTI (upper respiratory tract infection)
  • Barking cough 
  • Stridor (noise around larynx)

17

What are the treatment options for croup?

  • Reassurance
  • Opening airway with adrenaline nebuliser
  • Intubation

18

What is supraglottitis?

  • Bacterial infection of tissues in the larynx above the glottis

19

Describe the onset and symptoms of supraglottitis

  • Rapid onset of symptoms
  • Fever 
  • Odynophagia 
  • Drooling 
  • Difficulty breathing 

20

What are the treatment options for supraglottitis?

  • Antibiotics
  • Nebulisers
  • Intubation if necessary

21

Describe deep neck space infections

  • Swelling with / without abscess in the neck
  • Occurs often following tonsillits, dental abscess, trauma
  • Needs to be imaged
  • Can cause airway compromise 
  • Needs intubation and draining

22

What are the symptoms of diptheria?

  • Looks like tonsillitis initially
  • Grey membrane develops over pharynx
  • Can cause airway compromise

23

What is the treatment for diptheria?

Antobiotics and antitoxin

24

Describe fungal sore throats

  • Most commonly thrush
  • Often chronic irritation rather than pain 
  • Occurs:
    • after antibiotics
    • after radiotherapy
  • White patches in the throat

25

Why is stridor an important clinical indication?

It can be a sign of impending airway compromise

26

What are the symptoms of oropharyngeal cancer?

  • Otalgia
  • Neck lump 
    • Dysphagia
    • Odynophagia
    • Change in voice
    • Lazy tongue (hypoglossal nerve palsy)

27

Describe pain associated with throat cancer

  • Throat pain is rare
  • Ear pain is common (otalgia)
    • Referred pain from vagus nerve

28

What are the symptoms of laryngeal cancer?

  • Hoarseness
  • Neck node
  • Late presentation is a problem

29

What is a laryngectomy?

Surgical resection of the larynx and separation of the airway from the GI tract.