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Flashcards in Obesity Deck (19)
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1

What is the direct method of measuring body composition?

In-vivo neutron activation analysis

2

What are the indirect methods of measuring body composition?

  • Densiometry
  • Deuterium oxide dilution
  • Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

3

What are the doubly indirect methods of measuring body composition?

  • Skinfold thicknesses
  • Bioelectrical impedance
  • Waist circumference
  • BMI-based prediction equations for the percentage of body fat

4

What is the equation for calculation of BMI?

5

What are the effects of metabolic syndrome?

  • Insulin resistance
    • Obesity
    • Hypertension
    • Dyslipidaemia
    • Glucose intolerance
    • Raised inflammatory markers
    • Abnormal blood clotting
  • Atherosclerosis

6

What are the respiratory effects of obesity?

  • Sleep apnoea
  • Hypoventilation

7

What are the rheumatological effects of obesity?

  • Osteoarthritis

8

What is the effect of obesity on the liver?

9

What are the effects of obesity on the kidneys?

  • Worsening chronic kidney disease
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Renovascular disease
  • Focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis
    • Nephrotic syndrome 

10

What are the effects of obesity on mental health?

  • Psychosocial effects
  • Depression

11

Which cancers are associated with obesity in women?

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • Gallbladder
  • Uterus

12

Which cancers are associated with obesity in men?

  • Colon 
  • Prostate

13

Describe the properties of Prader-Willi syndrome.

  • Paternal deletion chromosome 15
  • Profound hyperphagia
  • Hypotonia
  • Delayed sexual maturation 
  • Mild to moderate learning difficulties

14

Describe the properties of Klinefelter's syndrome in childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

  • XXY
  • In childhood
    • Shyness and low self-confidence
    • Mild dyslexia and/or dyspraxia
    • Low energy levels
    • Difficulty socalising or expressing feelings 
  • In teenagers
    • Taller than expected with long arms and legs
    • Broad hips
    • Poor muscle tone
    • Slower than usual muscle growth 
    • Reduced facial and body hair
    • Small penis and testicles
    • Enlarged breasts (gynaecomastia)
  • In adulthood
    • Infertility
    • Low sex drive

15

List other genetic syndromes of obesity.

  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome
  • Alstrom syndrome 
  • Cohen syndrome 
  • Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism)
  • Carpenter syndrome
  • MOMO syndrome 
  • Rubenstein-Taybi syndrome
  • Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome

16

Desribe the characteristics of Cushing's syndrome.

  • Weight gain and more body fat
    • Centripetal
  • 'Buffalo hump'
  • Red, puffy, rounded face
  • Skin that bruises easily 
  • Large purple stretch marks
  • Weakness in the upper arms and thighs 
  • Low libido and fertility problems
  • Depression and mood swings

17

Describe the hypothalamic control of energy balance.

  • Crucial role in modulating appetitive behaviour
  • Critical nodes in the control of body weight 
    • Arcuate proopiomelanocortin
    • NPY/AgRP
  • Possibly direct targets for leptin

18

What are the medications which could potentially be used in treating obesity?

  • Orlistat (xenical)
  • Lorcaserin (Belviq)
    • 5-HT2C receptor agonist
  • Phentermine and topiramate (Qsymia)
  • Buproprion
    • Noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitor / nicotinic receptor antagonist
  • Naltrexone (contrave)
    • Opioid receptor antagonist
  • Liraglutide 
    • Saxenda

19

What are the surgical options for the treatment of obesity?

  • Gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass)
  • Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding 
  • Bioliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch
  • Gastric sleeve