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Flashcards in Communication Deck (20)
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communication process

The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning



The encoding of a thought is a part of the mental process before delivering a message to someone. The message is the actual physical product of the sender's encoding.



The decoding of a message is done by the receiver, which is a step in which the receiver translates the symbols and message into an understandable form.



Represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences.


channel of communication

The medium through which a message travels.


formal chanel

Communication channels established by an organization to transmit messages related to the professional activities of members.


informal chanels

Communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices.


channel richness
+ what are examples of low channel richness and high channel richness.

The amount of information that can be transmitted during communication episode. Face-to-face score highest in channel richness. Formal reports, memos, letters and emails have low channel richness.
Rich channels have the ability to: handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback, and be very personal.



A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. Comes in opposition with selective perception, which is done by the receiver.


selective perception

Receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.


information overload

A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity. Individuals have a finite capacity for processing data.


nonverbal communication

Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver.


downward communication

Is a type of communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level. Group leaders and managers use this approach to assign goals, provide job instructions, inform employees of policies and procedures, identify problems that need attention, and offer feedback.


upward communication

Is a type of communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It's used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. Upwards communication keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers and the organization in general.


lateral communication

Is when communication occurs among members of the same work group, among members of work groups at the same level, among managers at the same level, or among any horizontally equivalent employees.


formal communication networks.

Task related communications that follow the authority chain.


informal communication networks

Communications that flow along social and relational lines. (ex: grapevine or word-of-mouth)


the grapevine

The organization's most common informal network


high context-cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication.


low-context cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on word to convey meaning in communication.