Flashcards in Comparative and Superlative Deck (20):
Phrase: X is as big as Y.
Phrase: X ist so groß wie Y.
When comparing two objects in a simple clause, which cases do the objects take?
Both objects take the nominative, because the verb between them is some form of 'sein.'
Phrase: X is not as heavy as Y.
Phrase: X ist nicht so schwer wie Y.
Phrase: A is darker than B.
Phrase: A ist dunkler als B.
Phrase: He is the smartest.
Er ist am intelligentesten.
How are comparative adjectives/adverbs usually formed?
An -er is added to the stem of the adjective/adverb, followed by the word 'als' and then the thing being compared to.
How are comparative adjectives formed for adjectives/adverbs ending in -el, -en, or -er? (e.g., teuer?)
The 'e' in the second-last place in the adjective/adverb is dropped. 'Teuer' becomes 'teurer,' for example.
Does the stem vowel change when forming a comparative adjective/adverb?
Yes. Many one-syllable adjectives/adverbs add an umlaut to the a, o or u.
But not all.
How is a superlative adjective/adverb formed?
1. For adjectives/adverbs ending in d, t or s, add an -(e)st.
2. For adjectives/adverbs ending in -el, -en or -er, add an -st to the end.
3. If the comparative form got an umlaut, the superlative does too.
4. Another option: am + adjective/adverb+sten.
comparative forms of 'gern'
gern, lieber, am liebsten
comparative forms of 'gut'
gut, besser, am besten
comparative forms of 'hoch'
hoch, höher, am höchsten
comparative forms of 'nah'
nah, näher, am nächsten
comparative forms of 'viel'
viel, mehr, am meisten
Translate: better and better. (Or any adjective, for that matter.)
Phrase: immer besser, as in "Es funktioniert immer besser."
When is the 'am besten' style of superlative adjective/adverb used?
The 'am besten' style of superlative is used thusly: Mein Auto ist am besten.
How is the '-est' style of superlative used?
The '-est' superlative form is used in front of a noun, and it must be inflected to have the correct adjective ending.
Translate: The fastest car is red.
Phrase: Das schnellste Auto ist rot. (The weak declension, neuter, nominative gets an -e ending.)
Translate: My biggest dog is a poodle.
Mein großte Hund ist ein Pudel.