Flashcards in Component 1 Topic 3 Deck (27):
What is urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the growth of the proportion of a countries population that live in urban areas.
Which areas of the world (continents and emerging/developing/developed countries) had the highest level and rate of urbanisation from 1980 to 2010?
Between 1980 and 2010 developing countries in continents such as Asia and Africa were urbanising as a much faster rate compared to the rest of the world. This is because European and north American countries were already mostly urbanised at this point.
How has the level and rate of urbanisation change around the world from 2010 to 2020?
Once again during this time period developing countries in Asia and Africa will have the highest rates of urbanisation. Again this is because the developed world in the west is already urbanised.
How will the level and rate of urbanisation change in the future 2020 onwards?
In the future, once again developing countries in Asia and Africa will have the highest rate of urbanisation however North America will still have the highest urbanised population in the world.
What is a megacity?
A megacity is a city with a population of over 10 million people.
How has the number and location of megacities changed over time? Where are they and where has the greatest growth occurred?
Over time pretty much every current mega city will continue to grow but not by as much as the new predicted megacities. By 2030 there should be many more megacities in current developing continents such as Africa and Asia. The current megacities in Asia and Africa should also grow much more than current megacities in Europe and North America. In 2014 there was 28 megacities and by 2030 there will be 41 megacities.
What is a primate city (world city) – consider social, economic, political, cultural factors as well as facts about their population size?
A world city is a city that has a much bigger importance within the world than their size suggests, e.g. London is very small in size but has a huge importance within the world. London makes many political decisions that can affect people globally. London is one of the biggest financial centres in the world. London has the highest amount of air traffic in the world, meaning people are constantly travelling in and out of the city. Additionally world cities are usually the decision makers within tnc headquaters and big companies. This means they can decide what is produced, what to sell and where to sell.
Why is urbanisation happening so quickly in some places (2 factors)
Urbanisation is happening very quickly in certain places because there is an urge to live in cities where living standard is typically much higher. Another reason for an increase in urbanisation would be due to a natural increase in birth rate.
What is rural to urban migration?
Rural to urban migration is when people migrate from rural to urban areas due to many reasons. These could be, to find work or for a easier life where you are close to many services.
Give definitions and examples of push and pull factors
Push and pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. A push factor is something that forces someone to leave their home such as a war. A pull factor is something that attracts someone to a new area or country such as a better standard of living.
Explain the reasons why cities in Developing countries such as Kampala (Uganda) are growing?
Cities in developing countries such as Kampala, Uganda are growing because there is better housing, better quality of life, better services and more job opportunities which pay more money.
Explain the reasons why some cities in Developed countries such as New York and London are growing?
Cities like new York and London are growing once again because there is better and more job opportunities, especially for young adults.
Contrast the growth in New York and Kampala – are there different reasons?
New York is growing a lot due to job opportunities and immigrants moving from overseas to take up jobs which require specific skills. Similarly in Uganda people are moving to Kampala because there is also more job opportunities however the isn't much immigration into Kampala.
Explain the reasons why some cities in Developed countries such as Detroit/Hull are shrinking?
Cities that used to be very industrialised such as Detroit and Hull have decreased in population due to de-industrialisation. For example, the main source of employment in Detroit was in general motors but with cheaper alternatives overseas, and machines to do the work, people had to move out to other cities to find new jobs.
Define informal and formal employment
Informal employment is unofficial and unregulated by the government, where no records are kept. This means people who are employed within the informal sector do not have to pay tax however working standards are typically very poor.
Formal employment is official and meets legal standards for taxes and workers pay and condition.
Give an example of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary job
A primary sector job is when you collect raw materials in work such as agriculture and mining. A secondary job is when you turn the raw materials into a product such as working in a car factory. A tertiary job is when you provide a service for someone such as a sales person or a bus driver. A quaternary job is a higher class service such as working in IT or working within research and development.
Explain how the economy changes as a country develops
As a country develops its economy will also grow as a result of many factors. One reason could be, when a country develops the number of informal jobs immensely decreases. This means that more people will be working within the formal economy, which in turn means the government will be able to collect more taxes to improve the countries infrastructure. L
Contrast urbanisation and counter-urbanisation
Urbanisation is the process of people and businesses moving into urban areas whereas counter urbanisation is when people move from urban areas to rural areas. People may decide to counter urbanise because improvements in transport make it easy to travel in an out of the city from rural areas and improvements in IT allow people to work from home. In general it is mostly wealthier people that decide to counter urbanise as they can afford to buy larger houses in the countryside. In the UK urbanisation began to happen between 1760 and 1850 whereas counter urbanisation happened between 1970 and 1980.
What is suburbanisation and why did it happen?
Suburbanisation is when people move out of the cities to live in the suburbs on the edge of the city. Suburbanisation occurs when developed cities become to crowded and polluted, so if you can afford it you decide to move to the suburbs where its less crowded and the air is cleaner. In the UK this happened in the early 20th century.
How did suburbanisation affect where people lived?
Suburbanisation meant that more people where living in the suburbs especially families, whereas the city was mostly built up with younger adults who want to live close to work in the city.
What is the difference between Commercial, Industrial and Residential land in urban areas?
Commercial areas are typically found in the CBD and can be full of offices, shopping centres and hotels. In commercial land buildings are built much higher because there is less space. Industrial areas usually contain factories and warehouses and there is lots of transport links so goods can be easily transported. Industrial areas are often found in the inner city. Residential areas are usually found in the suburbs and obviously contain residential housing.
How does accessibility affect the land use?
Accessibility influences urban land use because shops need to locate in areas with good transport links, such as city centres. This is because businesses want to be accessible for as many people as possible.
How does planning affect land use?
Planning can affect land use patterns. The city authorities tend to decide how they want the city to look, e.g. the height of buildings.
How does availability and cost affect land use?
City centres tend to be built upwards due to a lack of space. Old brownfield sites can be used for housing and shops.
Where is lagos located?
Lagos is located in nigeria in West africa. It is is south nigeria and it is not the capital of Nigeria however it is the financial capital of Nigeria.
Why is lagos important to nigeria?
It makes up 80% of its secondary industry and its home to many bog TNCs in Nigeria. It is also home to one of the worlds largest film industry, Nollywood.