List the 12 characteristics that make up a personal trainer
knowledge empathy professionalism psychology companionship communication visual auditory teacher patients consideration common sense versatility salesmanship proactive
Define the term personal trainer
student empathetic teacher of the movement and functions of the human body the internal and external forces that act upon it and who professionally motivates plans and monitors the benefits of exercise fitness and nutrition as it relates to their clients health related goal a protector of health and well-being
The greatest legal concerns for a personal trainer
pre-activity health screening of clients interpreting the results the development of physical activity recommendations and parameters for training the instruction and supervision of physical activity emergency preparations and timely fulfillment of such services
(T/F) A failure to screen or even perform screening which results in client injury may actually
increase the likelihood of legal claims and suits based upon negligence
T/F) Employers may not be r
esponsible for the actions of their employees
T/F) It is recommended to utilize applicable protective documents such as waivers, releases and
informed consents to meet their legal duties
T/F) It is not recommended to obtain liability insurance when working as an independent con-
T/F) Professionalism has nothing to do with punctuality, appearance, presentation, knowledge
Define “vicarious liability” or “respondent superior” and why it is important.
mployers are vicariously liable, that is, responsible for the negligent acts or omissions
of their employees in the course of their employment. For example, if you were to take
client’s purse or gym bag to safeguard, both you and your employer would then be
responsible for its contents or any loss.
When a client complains of pain in their joints, is it in your scope of practice to diagnose their
No, this would not be within your scope of practice to diagnose
Define exercise physiology
exercise Physiology—the study of the cellular functions in the human body before,
during and after exercise
What is the
basic unit of life?
name the three energy systems
atp creatine phosphate system glycolysis aerobic oxidation
which energy systems are anaerobic? aerobic?
the atp cp system and glycolysis are considered anaerobic the aerobic oxidation system is aerobic
t/f the term anaerobic means oxygen is not required to function
give three examples of activities that primarily require use of the ATP CP system
weight lifting sprinting tennis
what is glycolysis how long does it last
glycolysis is the breakdown of carbohydrate to pyruvate or lactic acid to produce atp it last from ten seconds to three minutes
what is lactate threshold
lactate threshold the accumulation or rise in lactate
what is glucose where is it stored what is it stored as
blood sugar is the main source of anaerobic atp production glucose is stored in the muscles and liver glucose is stored as glycogen
what is aerobic oxidation
the aerobic pathway to produce atp
what part of the musculoskeletal system allows the human body to move
what are the three types of connective tissue that encompass muscle
endomysium perimysium epimysium
what is a myofibril what are the two myofilaments that compose a myofibril
myofibril the smallest unit of a muscle cell actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments
what are the two types of muscle fibers explain the difference between the two
speed of contraction and force output
what muscle fiber type is predominantly involved in activities such as sprinting, power lifting, and the high jump
define the all or none principle
all or none principle when a myofiber is innervated by a nerve cell, the myofibrils contract totally or not at all
what are the three types of contraction list them in the order of strength from strongest to weakest
eccentric isometric concentric
define concentric strength
concentric strength the amount of musculoskeletal force to overcame a resistance by a shortening of the muscle fibers
define eccentric strength
eccentric strength the amount of musculoskeletal force displayed when a muscle is lengthened under tension
what is the function of blood
blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body blood also retrieves waste products from the cells and carries them to be expelled or metabolized
is the gradual cycling of specificity intensity or volume of training to achieve a specific goal
what is the overload principle
Overload principle—the attempt to challenge the musculoskeletal system with
unaccustomed stimulation such as, but not limited to, increased weight, speed, or
volume of training (number of sets or reps
what are the five major factors that effect training
Level of fitness, intensity, duration, frequency, genetics.
explain the difference between using free weights and selectorized equipment
Free weights can be used in several exercises, but not all; selectorized uses only select
Free weights are functional, real life easy to transport; selectorized doesn’t require a
spotter, safer and easier to change resistance.
ee weights require more technique; machines do not fit everyone and can limit ROM.
Free weights usually require more stabilization than machines.
what is atp
what would afferent information be
Afferent information is nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the
what is a motor unit
Is a single a-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates.
what are the three types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, cardiac and visceral.
what are the prime movers or agonists in a biceps curl
Biceps Brachii, brachioradialis and brachialis.
what would the training heart rate of 70% be for a 32 year old female with a resting heart rate of 72
220 - Age x % = THR = 131.6 or 220 - Age - RHR x % + RHR = THR = 153.2 or 220 - Age x % x 1.15 = THR = 151.34 (beats per minute)
give a few examples of signs of overtraining
Elevated resting heart rate, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, excessive weight-loss, excessive
what time of day are the highest levels of blood secretion levels of growth hormone released