Flashcards in Compression Deck (25):
What is therapeutic pressure (intermittent compression)?
Mechanical devices used to help encourage venous and lymphatic return
What is edema?
Pressure of abnormal amounts of fluid in extracellular tissue spaces
What is joint swelling?
Blood (haemarthrosis) and joint synovial fluid (effusion) accumulated immediately following injury with the appearance and feel of a water balloon
What is lymphedema?
Swelling in subcutaneous tissues results from excessive accumulation of lymph occurring several hours following injury
What are the purposes of the lymphatic system?
- Safety value
What is the structure of the lymphatic system?
Closed vascular system of endothelial cell lined tubes that parallel the arterial and nervous system
What are lymphatic capillaries made of?
Single layered endothelial cells with fibrils radiating from junctions of endothelial cells
What are terminal lymphatics?
Provide entry way into lymphatic system for excess interstitial fluid and plasma proteins
What is the function of the peripheral lymphatic structure?
Fluid moving into interstitial spaces pushes or pulls on fibrils forcing endothelial cells to gap apart creating an opening in terminal lymphatics for entry of several substances into lymphatic channels
What substances enter into the lymphatic channels?
- Interstitial fluid
- Cellular waste
- Large protein molecules
- Plasma proteins
- Extracellular particles
What aids in the movement of lymph?
- Muscle activity
- Active and passive movements
- Elevated positions
- Respiration and blood vessel pulsation
How does the formation of pitting edema occur?
Local edema formed by plasma, plasma proteins and cell debris from damaged cells all moving into interstitial spaces. Fluid in the form of a gel is trapped by collagen fibbers and proteoglycan molecules preventing free flow of fluid
How does the formation of lymphedema occur?
Constriction of lymph capillaries or larger lymphatic vessels from increased pressure will discourage lymph flow and cause intercellular fluid to increase
What are some ways to encourage lymph flow?
- Muscle contraction
What does rhythmic internal compression provided by muscle contraction due?
Squeezes lymph through lymph vessels improving its flow back to the vascular system
How can compression be used to increase lymph flow?
- Elastic compression
- Intermittent pressure devices
What does compression cause?
A pressure gradient differential between intra vascular and interstitial fluids
What are arterial capillary pressures?
What should maximum compression pressure correspond to?
diastolic pressure (80-90 mmHg)
What is circumferential compression?
Equal pressure applied along the length of the limb
What is sequential compression?
Pressure is applied in segments from distal to proximal
What is controlled cold therapy?
Constant pressure applied with cold and gravity
What are the different types of compression?
- Controlled cold therapy
What is the treatment time for compression?
- Duty cycle: 3:1 on:off
- Duration: 20 minutes- hours
- Frequency: 2-3 times daily