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Therapeutic Modalities > Ultrasound > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ultrasound Deck (68):
1

What is ultrasound?

Inaudible acoustical energy caused by acoustic vibrations with high frequency

2

What does ultrasound produce?

Thermal and non thermal effects

3

What are the parts of the basic flow chart algorithm?

- Electrical output
- Mechanical vibration
- Acoustic soundwave
- Absorbed in the tissues

4

What is ionizing radiation?

Radiation of sufficient energy to dissociate atoms or molecules into electrically charged atoms or radicals in the irradiated material

5

What is diagnostic ultrasounds?

A method of obtaining images from inside the human body through the use of high frequency sound waves

6

What is ultrasound imaging also known as?

Sonography

7

What is the difference between acoustical and electromagnetic energy?

Acoustical:
- Requires a medium to be transported
- Does not travel through a vacuum
- Travels most efficiently through dense tissue

8

What is the energy output for high frequency?

75,000-3.3 million Hz (.75-3.3 MHz)

9

What is the piezoelectric effect?

The ability of certain materials like crystals, somer ceramics and bone to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress

10

What are different types of piezoelectric crystals used?

- Quartz
- Lead zirconate or titanate
- Barium titanate
- Nickel cobalt

11

How does the crystal convert electrical energy to sound energy?

Through mechanical deformation

12

What is crystal deformation?

When an alternating current is passed through a crystal it will expand and compress

13

What is the reverse piezoelectric effect?

Occurs when an alternating electrical current passes through the crystal causing the crystal to contract and expand creating an acoustical sound wave

14

What is the effective radiating area (ERA)?

The total surface area of the sound head which emits acoustic energy

15

What are the typical sound head sizes?

- 2.5 cm
- 5 cm
- 10 cm

16

What is the beam non-uniformity ratio (BNR)?

Indicates the amount of variability in intensity within the beam

17

What is the ratio of the BNR?

The highest intensity found in the beam relative to the average intensity of the transducer

18

What is the ideal BNR and what is the typical BNR?

Ideal: 1:1
Typical: 6:1

19

How does the BNR affect the intensity?

The lower the BNR the more even the intensity

20

What frequency do most generators produce?

1.0 or 3.0 MHz

21

What is the depth of penetration dependent on?

The frequency

22

What depth is 1 MHz absorbed at?

3-5 cm

23

What depth is 3 MHz absorbed at?

1-2 cm

24

What occurs in the near field?

Distribution of energy is non uniform due to the manner in which waves are generated and differences in acoustic pressure

25

What is the point of maximum acoustic intensity?

Waves are indistinguishable and basically arrive simultaneously

26

What occurs in the far field?

Energy is more evenly distributed and the beam becomes more divergent

27

How does absorption increase?

As the frequency is increased

28

What happens with penetration and absorption in tissues high in water content?

Decreased absorption, energy penetrates easily

29

What happens with penetration and absorption in adipose tissue?

Decreased absorption, energy penetrates easily to deeper tissues

30

What happens with penetration and absorption in tissues high in protein content?

Increased energy absorption

31

What happens with penetration and absorption in peripheral nerves?

Energy is absorbed 2X that of muscle

32

What are the different ways the intensity of the sound wave can be decreased?

- Reflected
- Refracted
- Absorbed

33

What is a longitudinal wave?

The molecular displacement is in the direction of wave propagation.
There are regions go high and low molecular density (compression and rarefaction) as the wave travels through alternating regions

34

What can longitudinal waves travel through?

Liquids and solids (soft tissue)

35

What is a transverse wave?

Displacement is perpendicular to direction of propagation

36

What can transverse waves travel through?

Solids (bone) and it rebounds when it hits

37

What is rarefaction?

The lessening in the density of something

38

What are standing waves (hot spots)?

When an ultrasound wave hits the interface between two tissues of different acoustic impedance a reflection of a percentage of the waves will occur.

39

What can occur in standing waves?

Achieve peak intensity and pressure which can create increased pain and tissue destruction through excess NRG and gas bubble formation

40

What is power?

The total amount of ultrasound NRG in the beam and is expressed in watts

41

What is intensity?

The rate at which energy is being delivered per unit area

42

What is spatial average intensity?

Intensity of the beam average over the area of the transducer

43

What is the usual rage for intensity?

0.1 - 3.0 W/cm2

44

What is the recommendation for intensity?

The lowest intensity at the highest frequency which transmits energy to a specific tissue to achieve a desired therapeutic effect

45

What are the thermal effects of ultrasound?

- Increased collagen extensibility
- Increased blood flow
- Decreased pain
- Reduction of muscle spams
- Decreased joint stiffness
- Reduction of chronic inflammation

46

For thermal effects to occur how much does the temperature need to rise and for how long?

Temp raised 40-50 degrees for a minimum of 5 minutes

47

What occur during mild, moderate and vigorous heating?

- Mild: increase of 1 degree C, accelerators metabolic rate in tissue
- Moderate: increase of 1-2 degrees C, reduces pain, muscle spams, chronic inflammation, increases blood flow
- Vigorous: increase of 3-4 degrees C, viscoelastic properties of collagen

48

What are the non-thermal effects of ultrasound?

- Increased fibroblastic activity
- Increased protein synthesis
- Tissue regeneration
- Reduction of edema
- Bone healing
- Pain modulation

49

What is micro-streaming?

Unidirectional flow of fluid and tissue components along the cell membrane interface resulting in mechanical pressure waves in an ultrasonic field

50

What does micro-streaming do?

Alters cell membrane permeability to sodium and calcium ions important in the healing process

51

What does the movement if air bubbles within the interstitial tissue do?

Enhances the permeability of cell membranes, increasing diffusion rates

52

What is cavitation?

The formation of gas filled bubbles that expand and compress due to pressure changes in fluid

53

What is stable cavitation?

Results in an increased fluid flow around these bubbles. The resultant movement of interstitial fluids in essence promotes acoustical streaming

54

What is unstable cavitation?

Results in violent large excursions in bubble volume with collapse, creating increased pressure and temperatures that can cause tissue damage

55

What does cavitation and streaming do during the inflammatory stage?

Increases transport of calcium across cell membrane releasing histamine which stimulates leukocytes to 'clean-up', leading to the stimulation of fibroblasts to produce collagen

56

What are some application considerations?

- Size of the area being treated
- What are you trying to accomplish
- Intensity of treatment
- Treatment area should be no larger than 2-3 times the size of the ERA
- If you decrease intensity then you should increase treatment duration

57

What are some different coupling mediums that can be used?

- Gel
- Water
- Mineral oil
- Distilled water
- Glycerin
- Analgesic creams

58

What should you consider when getting started?

- Apply to clean skin
- If too hairy, consider shaving
- Use appropriate conducting medium
- Select appropriate sound head size/frequency
- Ensure sound head is in contact with the skin before turing machine on
- Adjust intensity
- Move sound head (2.5 cm per second)

59

What are some different ultrasound techniques?

- Direct contact
- Immersion
- Bladder

60

How/when is the immersion technique used?

- When treating irregular surfaces
- Use a plastic, ceramic or rubber basin
- Can us tap water as a culling medium
- Transducer should not be in contact with the skin
- Wipe air bubbles away

61

How/when is the bladder technique used?

- Treating irregular surfaces
- Uses a balloon filled with water
- Coat both sides of the balloon with gel

62

What should the patient be told to pay attention for?

- Heat
- Aching
- Burning

63

If the patient says something doesn't feel right what should be done?

- Switch to pulse mode
- Decrease intensity
- Discontinue treatment

64

What is the continuous mode?

The transmission on NRG is on throughout the treatment and the intensity remains constant

65

What is the pulsed mode?

The transmission of ultrasound is pulsed on and off, the intensity is interrupted therefore the average intensity of output is low over time

66

What is the duty cycle?

The percentage of on:off time (20%, 50%)

67

What are some contraindication for ultrasound?

- Acute injury
- Over bone
- Over exposed spinal cord
- Over the eyes
- Over the carotid artery
- Pregnancy/pelvic area during menstruation
- Active infection
- Fracture site
- Cancer/tumours
- Decrease skin sensation

68

What is phonophoresis?

Ultrasound used to drive topical application of selected medication into the tissues