Computer-Supported Cooperative & Social Services Flashcards Preview

Interactive Information Systems > Computer-Supported Cooperative & Social Services > Flashcards

Flashcards in Computer-Supported Cooperative & Social Services Deck (26):
1

4 Key Aspects of Social Interaction

■ Human communication
■ Participating in groups
■ Issues of Presence
■ Culture and Identity

2

Communication

Communication is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode- decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. (Businessdictionary.com, 2018)

3

Semiotics

Semiotics, or semiology, is the study of signs and how they function. Signs can take a variety of forms such as words, images, sounds, gestures or objects. (Benyon 2014)

Sign consists of
■ A signifier (concrete representation)
■ The signified (abstract concept that is denoted by the signifier)
■ The connotation (a wider interpretation)

4

Social Group

Social Group is a collection of more than two people who have the same social identity – they identify themselves in the same way and have the same definition of who they are, what attributes they have, and how they relate to and differ from specific outgroups. (Turner, J.C. (1982))

5

Group formation process

Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Decay

6

Coordination

Coordination is sharing information and resources so that each party can accomplish their part in support of a mutual object (Stoner, 2013).

7

Cooperation

Cooperation is important in networks where individuals exchange relevant information and resources in support of each other’s goals, rather than a shared goal. (Stoner, 2013)

8

Collaboration

Collaboration is working together to create something new in support of a shared vision. The key points are that it is not through individual effort, something new is created, and that the gule is the shared vision. (Stoner, 2013)

9

Layers of presence

Psychological Level (extended presence)
■ People interpret their observations in terms of the likely mode of cognition of the other person
■ Personality and motivations are key elements

Physiological Level (core presence):
■ Perception depends very largely on knowledge derived from past experiences of the individual and from evolutionary history
■ People infer the emotional stare of the person from how they are behaving


Physical Level (proto presence):
■ Movements play key role
■ People either confirm that the patterns of bodily movements are those of a recognized person or they register those of an unknown person

10

Social presence

Social Presence is the degree of salience of the other person in a mediated communication and the consequent salience of their interpersonal interaction. (Short et al., 1976, p. 65)

Sense of social presence includes
■ Feelings of being in the world
■ Sense of being in a place
■ Sense of being with other people

Facets:
■ Co-location
■ Mutual awareness
■ Co-presence
■ Psychological involvement
■ Behavioral engagement

11

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is an interdisciplinary research topic, which deals with the question of how to support the work of individuals in teams supported by information technology.

CSCW is about groups of users – how to design systems to support their work as a group and how to understand the effect of technology on their work patterns. (Dix et al. 1998)

CSCW study of the electronic workplace – an organization-wide system that integrates information processing and communication activities. (Ellis et al. 1991)

12

Groupware vs CSCW

Groupware as software specifically designed:
■ To support group working and
■ To investigate algorithms fundamental to multi-user systems
■ With cooperative requirements in mind

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
■ Knowledge about the context of groupware design
■ Investigates individual/group/organizational requirements for multi-user systems

13

The 3C Model

CSCW enables different levels of social interaction
* Communication Support
* Coordination Support
* Cooperation Support

14

Classification by Time/Space Matrix

Groupware can be classified by:
■ When (same time or not) and where (same place or not) the participants are working
■ The function it performs for cooperative work

Common names for axes:
■ Time: Synchronous / Asynchronous
■ Place: Co-located / Remote

15

Key Challenges of CSWC

Disparity Between Who does the Work and Who Gets the Benefit
■ Effort of generating the content is done by only few persons
■ Content can be seen from many others => Can benefit of it
■ Remedy:
■ Promote clearly the collective benefits of the system
■ Provide some sort of advantage for everyone

Critical Mass
■ Group working needs a critical mass of people to participate to be effective
■ Appropriate amount of content providers is in particular critical when a new system is introduced (early adopters may give up before enough people participate to make use worthwhile)


Social Issues
■ Work is not just a rational activity, but a socially constructed practice (with all the shifting, conflicting motivations and politicking that this implies)
■ Introducing collaborative environments can disrupt the balance between private and public spaces
■ Blurring borders between work life and private life

Time-Space-Matrix
■ Classification of systems according the Time-Space-Matrix is a useful heuristic
■ Technologies can often be placed to more than one category


Articulation and Awareness
Articulation
■ Organizing and dividing activities into individual tasks
■ Refers to how work is broken into units and subtasks, its delegation among participants and its reintegration towards the goals of the work

Awareness
■ Appreciating what other people are doing or have done
■ Makes it possible to evaluate individual actions and the relevance of contributions in order to manage collaborative work

In collocated collaboration it is easier for people to see what one another are doing. In distributed collaboration designers need to attend to the design of interaction to
ensure that collaborators are aware of changes that happen

16

Social Media

Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content. (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010)

17

Collaborative Projects

Enable the joint and simultaneous creation of content by many end-users

probably the most democratic manifestation of UGC

* Wikis - that is, websites which allow users to add, remove and change text-based content
* Social bookmarking applications - which enable the groupbased collection and rating of Internet links or media content

Main idea underlying collaborative projects is that the joint effort of many actors leads to a a better outcome than any actor could achieve individually

18

Blogs

* represent the earliest form of social media
* special types of websites that usually display date-stamped entries in reverse chronological order
* Multitude of different variations, from personal diaries describing the author's life to summaries of all relevant information in one specific content area.
* usually managed by one person only, but provide the possibility of interaction with others through the addition of comments
* can have different formats

19

Content Communities

* Main objective of content communities is the sharing of media content between users

* Content communities exist for a wide rage of different media types, including text, photos, videos, presentations

* content communities carry the risk of being used as platforms for the sharing of copy-right protected materials

20

Social Networking Sites

applications that enable users
* to connect by creating personal information profiles,
* inviting friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles
* and sending e-mails and instant messages between each other

can include any type of information (photos, vidoes, audio files, blogs, ...)

allow people to make short announcements about their status

21

Social Websites

Social Web sites are websites that make it possible for people to form online communities and share user-generated contents (UGC)

Components:
* people may be the users of the open internet or may be restricted to those who belong to a particular organization
* communities may be a network of offline friends, online acquaintances, or one or more interest groups
* UCG may be photos, videos, bookmarks of web pages, user profiles, user's activity updates, text
*sharing of the UGC includes at the minimum the posting, viewing and commenting of the UGC, and my also include voting on, saving and retransmitting of the UGC

22

Catagories and essetial features - social networking sites vs social media sites

social networking sites are websites that allow people to stay connected with other people in online communities

social media sites are web sites that allow people to share UGCs


* personal profiles
* participating in online groups
* sharing UGCs
* finding information
* establishing online connections
* communicating with online connections
* expressing opinions
* holding the users

23

CSCW vs social web sites

CSCW: group orientend communication "we"-centric
SWS: person/self oriented communication "me"-centric

CSCW: top down implementation and enforced participation
SWS: bottum up implementation and voluntary participation

CSCW: pre-planned ways of working together
SWS: co-evolved conventions

CSCW: small number of users over a limited period of time
SWS: large number of users with no project limitations

24

Enterprise 2.0

Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social software platforms within companies or between companies and their partners or customers.

requirements:
* create a receptive culture
* create a common platform to allow for collaboration infrastructure
* perform change management that considers the requirements and needs of the users
* managerial support and leadership is crucial

Elements:
*Search
*Links
*Authorship
*Tags
*Extensions
*Signals

25

Benefits of Enterprise 2.0

Internal view:
* process improvements
* cooperation and collaboration between employees
* knowledge sharing

external view:
* reputation and issues management
* image building
* cooperation with experts, suppiers
* market research
* product developement

26

Critical Success factors of enterprise 2.0

* easy to understand
(do experts and novice understand how to use the platform?)

* authorship
(is every user-generated content marked with its author and the timestamp of publication?)

* groups
(can groups or projects teams be formed?)

* requirements
(does the platform fulfil the user requirement or purely cover all known functionalities?)

* communication
(does the platform also enable the communication with people using the system less intensive or even not at all?)

* data security
(does the platform fulfil all data security requirements of the legal department and/or woks council?)

*mobility
(can the platform be accessed also from mobile devices?)