Computers Flashcards Preview

Personal FSOT > Computers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Computers Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...

What activity reduces huge amounts of data to smaller sets of meaningful usable data?

Data mining: the act of reducing huge amounts of data into usable pieces of information. This is mostly done by eliminating data that isn't interesting and looking for patterns in the rest. These patterns, as opposed to the data that underlie the patterns, are often actionable.


What is the main disadvantage of relational databases?

The main disadvantage of relational databases is the presence of redundant data. This redundant data takes up extra memory space and must be managed carefully to ensure that inconsistencies do not sneak into the system. The process of organizing a relational database to minimize redundancy is called normalization.


What is error encoding?

Error encoding is a form of copy protection. Floppy disks used to be encoded with bad sectors that the program looked for before it would run. Copying floppy disks did not transfer the bad sectors, so the copied program could effectively determine that it was not original and would not run. Since floppies are no longer used, this tactic no longer works, but theoretically similar techniques that are in current use are often referred to as error encoding.


In terms of online security, what is re-identification?

Re-identification is the process of determining a user's actual identity from anonymous information. If the information has value, for marketing agencies for instance, determining its originator allows the data to be sold.


What is open-source software?

Open-source software is software whose source code is freely available. Since the source code is open, anyone may examine it or alter it or redistribute altered versions of the program.


What determines the maximum size of an Ethernet network?

The maximum size is determined by the collision domain. When a message is sent between nodes, sometimes the message finds that the receiving node is busy and is bounced back to the transmitting node. The time it takes to send the message, bounce off the busy node and return to the original node determines the network's collision domain. Faster networks actually have shorter collision domains.


Why is the JPEG format considered to be lossy?

JPEGs are called lossy because some of the data is lost during compression when converting a file to JPEG format. Lossy compression is good for reducing the file size of media that doesn't need great resolution, such as a small icon. Other formats offer losslesss compression if maintaining high definition is important.


What agency is responsible for regulating IP addresses?

ICANN is responsible for maintaining IP addresses. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers was created in 1998. Although it was created by the US government, it is a non-governmental organization.


What computer network is generally considered to be the origin of the Internet?

ARPANET is generally considered to be the origin of the Internet. ARPANET was a network created by the US Department of Defense that connected universities and private research facilities that were working on ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency) related contracts.


What is a white-hat hacker?

Hackers that expose security vulnerabilities so that they can be fixed. These activities are sometimes, though not necessarily, illegal or controversial. Black-hat hackers exploit security vulnerabilities for personal gain.


Firefox, Safari and Windows Explorer are examples of:

web browsing applications on computers with which users can view the Internet. Windows Explorer is the standard browser on personal computers that employ Microsoft Windows as their operating system. Safari is the standard browser on Macs. Mozilla Firefox is an open source browser that PC and Mac users can install and use in place of the standard option.


A surge protector acts as a:

voltage gateway for electronic machines, like computers, protecting them from any changes in electric current. Spikes or drops in voltage can damage the circuitry of an electronic implement, and computers are especially sensitive. An unprotected computer can lose functionality or data if it experiences a sudden shift in current, regardless of how brief of marginal the shift is.


The digital device referred to as a jump drive or thumb drive is used for what purpose?

data storage and transport. the device connects through a USB port.


What type of digital file ends with a .jpg extension?

images, illustrations, vector designs and photographs may have .jpg extensions. Text documents end with extensions that identify the program in which they were written. The most common are the .doc or .docx extensions that accompany Microsoft Word files or files compatible with Word. Spreadsheets typically have .xls extensions indicating Microsoft Excel compatibility. Audio files commonly have .mp3, mpeg-4, or m4a file extensions.


What is the difference between the email address settings "CC" and "Bcc"?

A recipient on the Bcc list of an email will not be visible to any other recipient of the message. "Cc" stands for carbon copy and the function allows senders to direct a message to a list of recipients for informative. The email address of anyone in the CC field will be listed on the messages's heading. Bcc stands for blind carbon copy and performs the same function as the CC list, but it does not list an addressee's name or email address in the message heading.


What can metadata include?

The date of creation, the number of times the document has been accessed, the usernames of everyone who has accessed the document and much more. Even though it is easy to eliminate, metadata has proven to be a major privacy issue because so many users are unaware of it.


Web addresses that end in a two-letter domain name like .ca, .se, and .fr are exclusively used by:

Countries. The technical term for these domains is "country code top-level domain" or "ccTLD." To qualify to register a web address in a country code domain, site administrators typically have to meet certain residential requirements so that their ties to that country can be substantiated. '.ca' is the domain for Canada, '.se' is the domain for Sweden, and '.fr' is the domain for France.


What is the main disadvantage of backwards compatibility?

Systems that are backwards compatible are more complex. This generally makes them less stable and more vulnerable to attack from hackers. Windows strives for backwards compatibility, while Apple operating systems do to a lesser degree, and many Linux distributions do not attempt to be backwards compatible.


Why is a CPU's cache important?

Without a cache, the CPU will miss lots of clock cycles. The CPU does calculations; it doesn't store memory. If data is needed to perform a calculation, then the CPU has to wait for it to arrive. Holding data in the cache minimizes the delay. The faster the CPU, the larger the cache needs to be to make full use of it.


What would happen if you ran a computer without a graphics card?

There would be no image. Modern graphics cards perform many additional functions, but, like their predecessors, they are responsible for the putting an image on the monitor.


What is Moore's law?

Moore's states that processing power will double every two years. Moore's Law, based on a prediction by Intel cofounder Gordon Moore, originally stated that the number of transistors that can be fit on a silicon chip would double every two years, but this is equivalent to processing power. His prediction has held true for the last 50 years.


What role does the BIOS play?

The basic input/output system (BIOS) loads the operating system. It turns on the computer's hardware and then runs a piece of code called the boot sector, which boots the operating system.


Which of the following is not an advantage that LCD monitors have over CRT monitors?
-They are cheaper
-They take up less space
-The screens are perfectly flat
-The image isn't distorted near the edges

LCD monitors are not chapter than CRT monitors. CRT, cathode ray tube, monitors are the old style monitors that need a lot of room and are slightly curved, distorting the image. LCD monitors were invented for laptops, which cannot use such large monitors, but are becoming more common for desktop computers as well.


What is random about random access memory (RAM)?

Random access memory can access any data point at any time. Compare this with an old 8-track, which always had to start from the beginning and play to the end, or a cassette tape, which could only play the bit of tape currently exposed.


Where does the term floppy disk come from?

Floppy disks used to be quite bendable. Although later incarnations were rigid, the name stuck.


Which of the following is not an example of malware?
-A computer virus
-Trojan horses
-A hacker accessing your system

A hacker accessing your system is not an example of malware. Malware is any software that the user does not want on his or her system. Legal forms of malware, such as adware, fit that definition even in they do not intend to harm the user or his computer.


Which of the following is a major advantage of cloud computing?
-Programs are easier to design for cloud computing
-Resources are used more efficiently
-Cloud computing is inherently more secure
-Programs use less processing power when running on the cloud

Using resources more efficiently is one of the main advantages cloud computing. Cloud computing creates a network of virtual workspaces that each user can access from his or her terminal. Although total physical system resources are the same as in a traditional network, the resources available to each virtual workspace are allocated dynamically. This prevents system resources from siting idly when another user needs them.


In object-oriented programming, what is an object?

An object is a data structure that includes both data sets and the methods of functions that operate on that data. Object-oriented languages are the dominant programming languages in modern software engineering.


Does modern encryption rely more heavily on private key or public key encryption?

A combination of public and private key encryption is used. Private key encryption is faster and more secure than public key encryption, but distributing the private key is a major obstacle. Many security protocols use public key encryption to share a temporary private key, then use the private key for the rest of the session.


What is the difference between an algorithm and a protocol?

A protocol determines not only what needs to happen but also who is responsible for making it happen. For example, a recipe might tell you how to bake a cake, but a protocol also determine who is responsible for buying the ingredients mixing the batter and so forth.