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Describe the Battle of Yorktown

1781 The last major land battle of the Revolutionary War. General Cornwallis's, British General, surrender.


Describe the international significance of the Battle of Lexington and Concord

1775. Aka "the short heard 'round the world" because it is accredited with the spread of democracy internationally. It was the first military engagement of the Revolutionary War.


How many men signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution?

6. The Declaration was signed in 1776 and the Constitution was signed in 1789. Benjamin Franklin, Robert Morris, James Wilson, George Olymer, Roger Sherman, George Read.


Describe the Battle of Waterloo

June 1815. one of the most decisive battles in European history, and one of the bloodiest in the world. It was the final act in 23 years of almost incessant warfare between France and its neighbors. After being expelled from France, Napoleon returned in 1815 and overthrew the unpopular Bourbon monarchy. Napoleon advanced into modern-day Belgium, catching the Duke of Wellington and the Prince Bulcher's Prussian army off guard. The allies regrouped at Waterloo, holding the strategic ground. Napoleon lost and his power was broken for all time in a single, brutal day of fighting.


What are the Lincoln-Douglas debates?

1858. Lincoln runs against Stephen Douglas for Senate, facing off in 7 debates, during which Lincoln makes legendary speech "a House Divided." Douglas wins, however 2 years later, they face off again for the Presidency and Lincoln wins.


Civil Disobedience

1849. "Resistance to Civil Government" an essay by American Transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. Argues that individuals should not allow governments to overrule their consciences. Thoreau was motivated by his disgust w/ slavery and the Mexican-American War. The book advocates non-violent protests and inspired people around the globe including Tolstoy, Gandhi, and MLK.


Who was Mark Twain?

His real name was Samuel Clemens. Missouri was his home and the setting of his novels. He is considered to be the father of US literature by Faulkner and many others. He lived from 1835-1910. He wrote Tom Sawyer, and Huck Fin, which is considered to be one of the great American novels with a distinct American voice.


What is Leaves of Grass?

Written in 1855 by Walt Whitman, it is a collection of his poems that he revised until his death. Originally, it contained 12 poems, but the last addition contained 400. The collection is notable for its delight in sensual pleasures during a time when such candid displays were considered immoral. He was influenced by the transcendentalist movement and Ralph Emerson. The poems do not rhyme or follow standard rules for meter and line length. The collection includes an elegy to Lincoln, "O Captain! My Captain!" It also includes "When lilacs last in the dooryard Bloom'd."


Who was Henry Wadsworth Longfellow?

(1807-1882) He was an American Poet and Educator. His works include: Paul Revere's Ride and Evangeline. Paul Revere's Ride falsely recounts the 1775 attempt of Paul Revere to warn the MA colonists that the British and landed in Boston. Paul did not ride alone and was captured before he could finish his ride. The poem was meant to inspire patriotism in the Civil War. His collection is titled Voices of the Night. He was one of the first fire side poets and the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's "the Devine Comedy."


Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?

(1803-82) Founder and leader of the Transcendentalist movement; considered to be the leading intellectual of his day; wrote the essay, "Nature" which expressed transcendental philosophy. He believed that "solitude in nature is the closest one can come to God." He championed equal rights for women; Gave the speech, "the American Scholar" in 1837, which is considered to be the "intellectual Declaration of Independence. Was close friends w/ Henry Thoreau and mentored Walt Whitman.


What is Transcendentalism?

1820s-30s, it was a religious and philosophical movement in the Eastern region of the US. It was a protest against general state of spirituality and intellectualism at Harvard. It was the belief that the institutions corrupt the purity of the individual.


What was the Gilded Age?

1870-80s. During this time the American economy becomes the strongest in the world. Individuals such as Andrew Carnegie and JP Morgan accused vast wealth and created an aristocracy that rivaled European courts in wealth and social power.


What was the Lost Generation?

This is the generation that came of age during WWI, born between 1883-1900. The term was coined by Ernest Hemingway's the Sun Also Rises and by Gertrude Stein (his mentor) to describe the directionless mentality of the generation. Hemingway, Fitzgerald, TS Elliot, Waldo and Peirce were all members of the generation.


Describe the Era of Good Feelings

1817-25. It was during the Presidency of James Monroe, and was a period of national purpose and desire for unity. It took place in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. During this time, the Federalist Party collapsed and with it, the animosity between this party and the Democrats. Monroe attempted to eliminate all political parties. However, the era ended with the bitter presidential race between John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Jackson.


Describe the Oregon Trail

Between 1811-1850, 400,000 settlers began to settle in the Western Frontier. Inspired a popular children's game called "the Oregon Trail."


Madame X

Painted by John Singer Sargent in 1884, Paris. Features a married American expat, Virginie Avegno Gautreau, wearing a black gown that was exceptionally revealing for the time. The sensation caused by the painting almost destroyed Sargent's career.


Who wrote the Jungle?

The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair (1878–1968). Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities. However, most readers were more concerned with his exposure of health violations and unsanitary practices in the American meatpacking industry during the early 20th century, based on an investigation he did for a socialist newspaper.


Describe the Progressive Era

The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s . The main objective of theProgressive movement was eliminating corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office a further means of direct democracy would be established. They also sought regulation of monopolies (Trust Busting) and corporations throughantitrust laws. These antitrust laws were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors.

Many progressives supported Prohibition in the United States in order to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons. At the same time, women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. A second theme was building an Efficiency Movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and bring to bear scientific, medical and engineering solutions; a key part of the efficiency movement was scientific management, or "Taylorism".


World War I

1) duration

2) What started the war?

3) Why the US became involved

4) What were the Central Powers?

5) What were the Allied Powers

6) Who was the US President

1) 1914-18



World War I

1) What was Lusitania?

2) Germans use this for the first time.

3) The war's longest battle.

4) British introduced this weapon.

5) What was the Zimmermann Telegram?

6) Name the treaty that ended the war.


Describe the Scopes Trial


Who was Shirley Temple?

A singing and dancing child actor who held the nation's attention from 1935-8.  Was a #1 box star seller during that time.  Became a diplomate, Ambassador, and chief of Protocal for the US.


Describe the Harlem Renaissance


Describe the Great Migration


What was the "Great Gatsby"


Describe the Great Depression.  Where, when, why


Describe the Flapper Era


Describe the Greatest Generation


Describe the Silent Generation

1920-40s.  Aka, the "Lucky Few." The were too young to fight in the War, but lived through it.  They were a small generation due to the low birth rates following the Great Depression.  The term was coined by Time Magazine, and the generation was characterized by the conflict between tradition and changing cultural attitudes


Describe the Battle of the Bulge

1944.  The battle gets its name from the formation taken by the Allied Forces defending the Ardennes against a suprise attack made by Hitler.  American forces proved vital during the battle and lead to the neutralization of the German counterofficne 


Describe the New Left


Describe Manifest Destiny


What were the Greensboro Sit-ins?


Who were the Weathermen?


Describe the Right to Life Movement


Describe NeoCons


Describe the Evangelical Movement


Describe the Moral Majority


Describe Brown v. Board of Education.


Who was Andy Warhol?


What was "Peanuts?"

Ran from 1950s-2000 and was the most popular and influential comic in the history of comics.  It was a daily comic strip by charles Schulz.  Main characters were Charlie Brown, Lucy Van Pelt, and Snoopy.  Snoopy is revealed to be a note-worthy WWI piolet


Who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird?  

Written in 1960 by Harper Lee, it is loosely based on an event that occured near the author's hometown when she was 10. It


Who wrote Catch in the Rye?


Who wrote "On the Road?"

Written in 1957 by Jack Kerouac. It was based on his travles accross the US and the characters are based on his friends and key leaders of the Beat Movement:  William Burroughs (Old Bull Lee), Allen Ginsberg


Who were the Supremes?

a 1960s American female rythm and blues (R&B, doo-wop, soul, disco) singing group.  Was a Motown lable group fronted by Diana Ross


Who was Louis Armstrong?


Who was Robert Kennedy?


What was Generation X?


What was the Beat Generation?

1950s group of authors whos work explored and influenced culture in the Post WWII era.  It rejected the standard narrative values in favor of a spiritual quest, an exploration of American and Eastern religions, and sexual exploration.  Beat literature includes: Howl by Allen Ginsbay


Who were the Beatles?

A 1960s band formed in Liverpool, aka the Fab Four. Members included John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Stan.  It is considered to be the greatest and most influential act of the Rock era. Its intense popularity was named beatlemania.  It embodied the era's sociocultural revolutions.


Who were the Marielitos?


Who was Clarence Thomas?


Who was Oliver North?

He was a member of the National Security Council during Reagan's presidency. He played an integral role in the Iran-Centra Affair


Who was Geraldine Ferrero?


Who was Cesar Chaves?


Who was Nelson Mandela?

1918-2013.  He was a South African activist and former President who helped to bring an end to Apartheid


What was the Civil Service Reform Act?

It was inacted in 1978, it abolished the US Civil Service Commission, which was created in 1883 to end the spoils system (a social practice that enabled unqualified people to recieve government jobs through connections).  While the Civil Service Commission was successful in 


Describe Roe v. Wade


What is Ms. Magazine?


Who is Diane Sawyer?


Who is Henry Kissinger?

Worked for the Nixon and Ford administrations.  Recieved the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to negotiat a ceasefire in Vietnam (2 members of the committe resigned in protest to him being awarded).  Was involved in the controversial poltices of the CIA involvment in Chile and the 


Who is Daniel Ellsberg?


Describe the event known as Watergate.


Who was Deep Throat?


What are Millenials?


What was the Digital Millennium Copy Right Act?


What was the Foreign Affairs Restructuring Act?


What is the Deep South?


What is the Breadbasket of America?

It generally refers to the midwest:  Iowa, Indiana, Illionois, Michigan, EAstern Nebraska, EAstern Kansas, South MInnesota and some of Missouri.  It refers to the areas rich in soil and climate.  It can also be refered to as the Corn Belt


What are the requirments of acquiring automatic US citizenship for those born in the US?

There is some debate on this issue as the wording in the constitution is not entirly clear.  Certain groups have used the opaque wording in the past to keep former slaves from recieving a citizenship, and it is being used today to keep children born in the states to illegal immigrants from recieving citizenship.  While the 14th amendment clearly states that anyone born in the US or a US terroritory (except in the American Samoa or Swain Island) is automaticly a US citizenship, there is no language guarenteeing that right to children born to illegal immigrants.  


What are the requirments of acquiring automatic US citizenship for those born outside the US?

Both parents must be US citizens and married at the time of birth; and at least one parent must have lived in the US prior to the child's birth.  


What are the eligibility requirements for the Naturalization process?

- Be at least 18 years of age

-Be a legal permanent resident for at least 5 years (can be reduced) prior to naturalization application

-Must have lived in the States for at least 30 months of the 60 months before applying, having never been absent for more than 6 consecutive months during that time

-Be of good moral character

-Pass the citizenship test (which is on US history and government; you are given 10 questions and must answer 6 correctly to pass)


Describe the Freedom of Information Act

-Enacted in 1967


-Provided the public the right ot request access to records from any federal agency

-Requires every government agency to produce an annual report

-The reports should include the number of days taken to fill all FOIA requests (agencies are required to fill all requests in 20 days)

-The fee for an FOIA request can be waved if the requestor can prove the reqest is in the public interest.

-Should a citizen be unhappy with the information provided to them, citizens may file an appeal with the bureau from which they requested the information.

-When the Department of Defense recieves a request for a classified document, a mandatory declassification review must be held

-The only agency exempt from the FOIA is the National Security Agency


Security Clearance for visa application is coordinated by:

The Department of Homeland Security for certain designated Categories (


Describe Goldwater - Nichols

Aka the Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, it made the most sweeping changes to the Department of Defense by reworked the comand structure of the military by increasing the powers of the Chairman of the Joint Cheifs of Staff and streamlining the military chain of command, which now runs from the President through the Secretary of Defense directly to combatant commanders (CCDRs), bypassing the service chiefs. The service chiefs were assigned to an advisory role to the President and the Secretary of Defense as well as given the responsibility for training and equipping personnel for the unified combatant commands.  It was signed into law by Reagan


Describe the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938


In the name, Pub. L. No. 94-587, what does the 94 stand for?


What are Shield Laws?

The protect reporters' right to refuse to testify about information and/or sources obtained during news gathering.  In the US, there is no federal shield law, however 48 states (Hawaii and Wyoming excepting) and DC all have some form of law protecting reporters' privilage.  


Define Juditial Review

Judicial review, power of the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative arms of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the constitution. Actions judged inconsistent are declared unconstitutional and, therefore, null and void. The institution of judicial review in this sense depends upon the existence of a written constitution.


A US citizen risks loosing his/her citizenship if...


What is the punishment for passport or visa fraud?


Application for visa MUST be denied if...


What is the US Federal Government's role in public education?


What is the Rhodes Scholarship?


Describe the first transcontinential railroad.

Aka "Pacific Railroad," it connected


Describe the Superconducting Super Collider

Aka Desertron, it was intended to be the World's largest particle accelerator.  However, Its construction was cancelled in 1993 after it ballooned out of budget (from $4-12 billion).