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Sociology AS OCR: Component 1 > Concept Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Concept Glossary Deck (31)
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1

Culture

A way of life for a group of people

2

Norms

Expected behaviour that define expected actions

3

Values

Ideas and beliefs which a person feels are important to them

4

Cultural diversity

A variety of cultural and ethnic groups within a society

5

Social construction

Culture is socially constructed by people to create social solidarity so different cultures have different ideas of crime

6

Subculture

A smaller group within a larger group that has its own values, which are different to the wider group

7

High culture

The kinds of culture enjoyed by those with higher status in a society

8

Popular culture

Simple or less sophisticated version of culture

9

Global culture

Collection of specific norms and values, which cross national boundaries. Many can communicate and travel much more = globalisation

10

Consumer culture

Set of ideas that encourages people to buy a range of never ending products.

11

Cultural hybridity

A new form of culture created from combining two or more forms of culture

12

Socialisation

The process of learning to be a part of society.

13

Nature debate

Believe that you don't need to be taught how to socialise or behave in a society because its instinct

14

Nurture debate

Highly praised by many sociologists and people that believe you need to be taught socialisation about human behaviour

15

Agencies of socialisation

Family
Peer groups
Education
Media
Religion
Work place

16

Primary socialisation

Informal process from which we learn the norms and values of our culture.
0-5years
Main influence is family

17

Secondary socialisation

We receive after primary socialisation. It is an ongoing process.

18

Deliberate socialisation

Teaching them personally on purpose
E.g. Telling a child to say 'please' and 'thankyou'

19

Unconscious socialisation

Unintentionally passing on behaviour/ manerisms

20

Social control

The influence or pressure to reduce deviance within a society.

21

Deviance

Breaking away from what is considered as normal in a certain context

22

Formal social control

An official reaction or treatment. It is the last resort if informal social control doesn't work

23

Informal social control

An unofficial and casual reaction

24

Role model

A person looked to by others as an example to be imitated

25

Imitation

The action of using someone or something as a model to copy.

26

Sanctions:

Positive

Negitive

Positive- praising an individual for rewarding actions

Negative- punishing an individual for deviant actions.

27

Sanctions:

Formal

Informal

Formal- officially imposed action against an individual to discourage or encourage their actions

Informal- unofficial action or reaction against an individual to discourage or encourage their actions

28

Define functionalism

Functionalism is a structural theory as it examines the structure of society as a whole. It is based on consensus theory, which basically states that most individuals within society agree upon what is acceptable and work towards meeting the needs of society as a whole

29

Define marxism

A perspective whereby the conflict of two classes reflects the inequality within society. The bourgeoisie would profit from their earnings and pay the proletariat just enough to survive on but not enough for their workload. The bourgeoisie convince the proletariat into a false class consciousness (unaware of the inequality). However, when they are aware of the exploitation from the bourgeoisie, this can become revolutionary.

30

Define feminism and describe the different types of feminism

A conflict theory whereby men have exploited women (patriarchy society). This is because women can be seen as vulnerable and men choose not to share the equality of family, work place, political views etc, benefitting them.

Radical feminism- strong belief that women are exploited

Marxist feminism- capitalism is the source of women's oppression

Liberal feminism- focuses on progress already made and changing the law

Black feminism- consider the different position of black women to white women

Post-modernist feminism- accepts that individual women have varying situations and interests