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Flashcards in Section B: Theoretical Perspectives Deck (26)
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1

Postmodernism: describe diversity and choice

People can pick and choose their identity.

People move away from shared norms and values and towards individualism; there is no fixed ideology

This all depends on an individual's interpretation of the media

2

Postmodernism: describe media saturation

What we watch or read in the media, makes us want to change/shape our identity

3

Postmodernism: describe globalisation including a study

Broader range of lifestyles and identities from which people can choose (much more fluid)

McLuhan - 'global village', the world is becoming much more interconnected due to social, economic and technological changes.

4

Postmodernism: describe blurred boundaries

Blurring boundaries between social groups which has led to increased individualism and less clear divisions between social groups

E.g. Males and females are not constrained by set roles that they are expected to follow

5

Postmodernism: describe hyper reality using studies

A less optimistic view of media - they believe that reality and fiction are blended together e.g. Air brushing

Baudrillard - people are engulfed by communications

Turkle - TV is more real world than the actual world

Watson - loss of authentic community and no true sense of self

6

Marxist: describe I.S.A

Ideology state apparatus- the bourgeoisie using media to exploit the proletariat

7

Marxist: describe surplus value

Exploiting the proletariat for money, not paying the full amount for their labour

8

Marxist: what is marxists views about the media

Marxists think that the bourgeoisie controls the media to creat a false class consciousness because they use their dominant ideology to portray an equal and natural society. It is an ISA, where the bourgeoisie/the media use to exploit a fair communist society. This tricks people into thinking that they live in a meritocratic society.

9

Marxist: what did Miliband say

Miliband - the ruling class portray a false picture of reality and presents capitalism in a positive way by using the media

10

Neo-marxist: what is Neo-marxism

Instead of just focusing on social classes like traditional marxism, Neo-marxism places greater emphasis on the role of the ideas in shaping society

11

Neo-marxist: what do Neo-marxists believe about the media

That media professionals promote ruling class hegemonic ideas as they themselves share the norms and values of the dominant ideology (well educated, white, males of a ruling class)

12

Neo-marxist: what does hall state about the media

3 overriding stereotypes of black people:

The native:
-seen in masses as attacking and threatening the white hero

The clown:
-seen as expressive, emotional and stupid

The slave:
-seen as devoted and childlike but also cunning, untrustworthy and mocking

Hall finds that black people are seen as the source of the problem that many are seeking to solve

13

Neo-marxist: what does hall state about the media

3 overriding stereotypes of black people:

The native:
-seen in masses as attacking and threatening the white hero

The clown:
-seen as expressive, emotional and stupid

The slave:
-seen as devoted and childlike but also cunning, untrustworthy and mocking

Hall finds that black people are seen as the source of the problem that many are seeking to solve

14

Feminism: what does liberal feminism say about the media

Optimistic view and acknowledge the development and progress made by women in the media

15

Feminism: what do radical feminists say about the media using a study

Believe there is little change in gender representations in the media. They argue that traditional stereotypes remain widespread

Wolf - "beauty myth", media presents ideal women that is damaging and unhealthy (young, slim, blonde, tall)
Media only uses this stereotype for economic gain

16

Feminism: what does malestream mean

The dominance of men in the media as they have most of the key positions in society

17

Feminism: what does marxist feminism say about media

Marxist feminists believe that media representations of women are inferring a patriarchal and capitalist society, where men exploit women to make their dominant ideology to create a false consciousness.

18

What does Lauzen say about feminism in the media

Only 16% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers and editors are women

19

Feminism: what did Whelehan say about feminism in the media

Study of mens magazines and argues that it promotes a 'laddish' world where women are sex objects and changing gender roles can be dismissed with an ironic joke

20

Feminism: what does Gauntlett say about feminism in the media

Argues that mens magazines offer a range of views that acknowledge changing gender roles

21

Feminism: what does McRobbie say about feminism in the media

Womens magazines suggested they havena significant influence on femininity and identity

22

Feminism: what does Frazer say about feminism in the media

Found that girls were likely to laugh at the content in girls magazine

23

Pluralism: how do pluralists view the media

They think that the media is an accurate representation of the world "window on the world" - they believe that the media is true

24

Pluralism: what do pluralists say about diversity and choice

People can decide and have a choice to agree with media representations

25

Pluralism: what does whale say

"The broad shape and nature of the press is determined by no one but its reader

26

Pluralism: what does Williams say

Argues that journalists provide an essential service in a democratic society in that they offer the information that people need to participate in political and cultural life