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Flashcards in Conceptual And Historical Issues In Psychology Deck (64):
1

What did Plato (428-347bc) believe?

Certain types of knowledge are innate or inborn

2

What was plato's theory called?

Nativism

3

Aristotle (384-322bc) believed?

All knowledge is acquired through experience

4

What was aristotles theory called?

Empiricism

5

Plato and Aristotle were

Antecedents to contemporary nature versus nurture debates in psychology

6

What is the philosophical foundations?

The mind-body problem

7

Who discovered the mind body problem?

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

8

The mind body problem was also referred to as?

Cartesian dualism

9

The mind body problem believed?

Mind (res cogitans) and body (res extensa) are separate yet they can influence each other

10

What was the geocentric model of the universe challenge by?

Heliocentrism

11

Who tested the heliocentric model?

Galileo- ideas unwelcome but ultimately irrefutable

12

Who explained physical order of universe?

Newton

13

What did Helmholtz (1821-1894) do?

Recorded speed of nerve impulses

14

Nerve impulses were previously assumed

So fast as to be immeasurable

15

How did Helmholtz measure this?

Stimulates nerve in frogs leg at different distances

16

What did Helmholtz discover from testing on the frog?

Nerve signals travel quite slowly (30 metres/sec)

17

Donders (1868) uses helmholtz's techniques to?

Measure speed of mental processes

18

What did Donders do?

Recorded speed of mental processes

19

How did Donders do this?

Measured simple reaction time (RT) to single stimulus-seldom less than 20msecs

Subsequent task with two stimuli-subjects had to react only to one of them

20

When was reaction time longer?

For more complex "discrimination" task

21

What does the subtractive method provide?

Difference between rt's and a measure of the mental act of "discrimination" (known as Donders method)

22

What is mental chronometry?

Time to perform mental tasks and their components

23

First psychological lab established by?

Wilhelm Wundt- university of Leipzig, 1879

24

University classes were

Attended by large numbers of young researchers from around the world

25

These university classes led to?

Rapid establishment of numerous psychology institutes including 20 in USA

26

These classes involved the application of scientific method to study

Mental processes

27

What is introspection?

Considered a way of accessing phsycological processes and experience directly

28

What does introspection do?

Trains people in self observation- to carefully and objectively analyse the contents of their own thoughts and feelings

29

Introspection is consistent with

Descartes claim that mental states are more real than physical states and can be accessed directly through reflection

30

Wundt's introspective model is?

Rigorous and arduous

31

Wundt's introspective method requires?

Focused attention over long periods, very large numbers of trials, long period of training

32

As a result of this focus research depends on

Quite small numbers of highly trained participants usually wundt's researchers

33

What is an advantage of introspection?

Direct observation of mental processes

34

What is another advantage of introspection?

Subjective

35

What is another advantage of introspective method?

Consistent with long intellectual tradition emphasising importance of self reflection ( including all major religions)

36

What is another advantage of interospective method?

Values of introspection survive in some branches of psychology (e.g non-directive psychotherapy, phenomenological psychology, positive psychology)

37

What was William James (1890) work

"Principles of psychology"

38

What did William James do?

Advocated introspection as a primary means of studying mental life

39

What did William James emphasise?

Practical functions of the mind

40

Who was William James influenced by?

Darwin's evolutionary theory

41

William James described?

Stream of thought-consciousness of self

42

What is a criticism of interospective method?

Subjective reports lack objectivity. Cannot be independently verified. If two observers differ who is right?

43

What is another criticism of interospective method?

Two activities at once- experiencing and analysing. Analysis may change/ interfere with the experience

44

What is another criticism of interospective method?

Many psychological functions too fast or complex for interospection. They take place below the level of consciousness (perceptuo-motor learning, mathematical thinking, creative thinking)

45

What is another criticism of interospective method?

Mental processes subject to a range of biases, attributions, confabulation. We often do not have true insight into our mental processes and causes of our behaviour

46

What is another criticism of interospective method?

Cannot be applied to children, insane, people with language difficulties, animals. Therefor limited applicability- excluded from investigation some of the most important areas of psychology

47

What is another criticism of interospective method?

Freud's concept of the 'unconcious mind' finally demolishes idea that introspection can reveal causes of behaviour. Unconscious motives, experiences, processes cannot be accessed

48

Interospective method does not

Stand the test of time

49

What is the alternative to interospective method?

Study people's behaviour not their mental states

50

What was watsons (1913) work?

"Psychology as behaviourist views it" (often called "the behaviourist manifesto")

51

Psychology as the behaviourist views it is

A purely objective experimental branch of natural science

52

The theoretical goal of behaviourist view is

The prediction and control of behaviour

53

Introspection forms no

Essential part of its methods nor is ten scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness

54

Psychology as the science of behaviour challenges view that

Consuls experience should be the subject matter of psychology. Human testimony is unreliable, unverifiable and incapable of quantification. Lacks scientific rigour

55

Psychology as the science of behaviour proposes that psychology is about

Understanding, explaining and predicting people's behaviour. The subject matter of psychology should therefore be behaviour

56

Unlike subjective experience,

Behaviour is objective and measurable. It is therefore possible to investigate it using scientific methods

57

Psychology as the science of behaviour is influenced by

Studies of animal learning. Analysis of animals behaviour provides insight into how learning takes place

58

Behavioural approach has remained at the heart of

Psychological enquiry ever since

59

19th century sees

Psychology emerge at the conjunction of philosophy and physiology

60

Questions and methods recognisable

To a modern psychologist

61

Interospective method does not

Stand the try of time

62

Over time emphasis shifts to studying

Behaviour. Very strong recruit against mentalist explanations of behaviour (behaviourism)

63

Very little mention of the mind or mental experience for at least

50 years

64

Beahvioural methods and many behaviourist ideas

Still dominant in contemporary psychology