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Flashcards in Learning:classical Conditioning Deck (51):
1

Learning is?

A process
Experience
Enduring
Adaptive
Change
Behaviour

2

Think about evolutionary adaptation

What will signal an upcoming important event that will have positive or negative consequences for me?

3

Behaviourism was founded by?

John Watson in 1913

4

Behaviourism is

Psychology as the study of behaviour and sees learning as the centrepiece of psychology

5

Behaviourism is focused on

The relationship between behaviour and stimuli and events in the environment

6

Habituation doesn't describe learning an association between two stimuli (unlike conditioning)

But describes the attenuation of a current response

7

Habituation requires

Repetition of a single stimulus
E.g in humans a loud noise
Aplysia (snail) touch skin to cause contraction of Gill

8

What is another term for sensitisation?

Dishabituation

9

Sensitisation again is not about the association between two stimuli but

Describes an increase in strength of a response to a repeated stimulus

10

An example of sensitisation in humans is

Tap dripping (or water torture if you prefer a more dramatic example)

11

An example of sensitisation in aplysia is

Stronger tactile stimulus causes withdrawal of more body parts

12

Sensitise or habituate?

Clearly important to respond in some way to harmful stimuli but not expend energy on reacting to safe events

13

Groves and Thomson (1970) believed

Both happen at the same time. If the amount of arousal produced is high then sensitisation occurs more than habituation and so the overall behavioural response is increased response to the stimulus- if arousal is low then the opposite happens

14

A form of associative learning: study pionneered by

Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

15

Pavlov won a Nobel prize for?

Psychology-medicine (1904)

16

Basic Pavlovian procedure requires?

A hungry dog

17

What is classical conditioning?

Association of two stimuli such that one stimulus comes to be associated with the repose normally given to the other

18

The original research is classical conditioning examined

Digestion and measured salivary response to food

19

What was noticed in classical conditioning?

That saliva production began to happen before the presentation of food

20

Serendipity: tested the idea of saliva production before food using

Tones- dogs do not normally salivate to tones- they do to food

21

To test this idea sound a tone every time the dog gets food

Dogs salivate to tone even when there is no food

22

Food and tone have become associated to

Produce the same response

23

Terminology

Unconditioned stimulus UCS-food
Unconditioned response UCR-salivate to food
Conditioned stimulus CS-tone
Conditioned response CR-salivate to tone

24

The important principle from this is that

Stimulus substitution has occurred- the CR is similar to, but weaker than, the UCR

25

Stimulus substitution is a basic learning process that

Occurs across species- it's function is to alert organisms to an important upcoming event

26

If salivation can be conditioned

So might a whole lot of other responses

27

Learning occurs most quickly when?

The CS (tone) appears first and is still present when the UCS (food) appears

This is known as forward pairing

28

If there is a delay between CS and UCS

It should only be for a couple of seconds maximum for best effect

29

Slower learning happens during

Simultaneous pairing

30

Slowest learning of all happens when

The UCS precedes the CS

This is know as backward pairing

31

Pavlov- a similar stimulus to the CS will also elicit a CR

The greater the similarity, the more likely it is that CR will occur

This is described as generalisation

32

A stimulus which is markedly different

Will not elicit a CR

This is described as discrimination

33

The adaptive value of generalisation and discrimination

Should be apparent

34

Higher order conditioning HOC:

Hungry dog gets repeated tone-food pairings
Tone becomes CS with salivation as CR
Now show black square prior to tone (no food given)
Square eventually becomes a CS which can elicit salivation on its own
While chain of items associated with response

35

An application of classical conditioning is

Phobias

36

Watson used behaviourist ideas to

Challenge the current Freudian psychoanalytic views of mental disorders such as phobias

37

Could a single pairing of a particularly aversive stimulus be enough to cause a lifelong fear?

Needed experimental evidence

38

Conditioned fear

Watson and Rayner (1920)

39

Little Albert

-11 month old boy introduced to rat
-Played happily with animal- or no fear- until the experimenter standing behind him hit gong

40

After gong sounded

Paired showing him the rat with banging a steel bar with a hammer

After several rat-noise pairings little Albert cried when he saw the rat itself

41

The rest of fear of rat resulted in

Fear generalised to similar creatures and objects- rabbit, Santa clause mask

42

Fear of rat

Less generalisation of fear to a dog-not as furry

43

Other evidence for conditioned fear

Ayres (1998) animas become afraid of neutral stimuli that are paired with a shock

Wolpe and Paul (1997) therapies based on the principles of classical conditioning are amount at the most effective forms of treatment for phobia ie if phobias are learned they can be unlearned

44

Exposure therapies

Exposure the the stimulus CS without the UCS allowing extinction to occur

45

Exposure therapies

Can use real life, hypnosis, mental imagery and virtual reality

46

Exposure therapies

Flooding- intense exposure to trigger stimulus, anxiety at maximum level- no adverse consequences

Problem- phobic has to stay in the room

47

What is systematic desensitisation ?

Graduated exposure to the trigger stimulus-same idea but less likely that the patient will do a runner

48

Attraction and aversion

As well as phobia, classical conditioning has also been linked to fetishism

Ralph McGuire and his trainees
The game and what to give a waitress
Aversion therapy
Advertising

49

Allergic reactions

E,g asthma- plastic fish gave same reaction as real goldfish allergen

50

Anticipatory nausea

Chemotherapy

51

Even the immune system response can become paired with a neutral stimulus

Sherbet and immune enhancing drug eventually leads to better immune response from just sherbet alone