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Flashcards in Learning: Operant Conditioning Deck (56):
1

Thorndike's puzzle box

Hungry cat in box
Food outside box

2

With thorndikes puzzle box there is a lever in box which can open door

By chance it stepped on lever and got quicker at doing this over time

3

The cat seemed to be learning something

But gradually so

4

The cat had no sudden insight

Trial and error learning which had the effect of eliminating responses that didn't work

5

The thorndikes puzzle box displays

Instrumental learning- organisms behaviour is instrumental for outcome

6

What is law of effect?

In a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur

7

What is the basic principle?

Behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences

8

What is the basic principle based on?

The study of the effects that patterns of rewards and costs made contingent on emitted responses

9

Classical conditioning is based on

Elicited responses

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Radical behaviourism was explored by

B.F. 'Fred' Skinner (1904-1990) and coined the term operant conditioning

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What does operant mean?

A class of behaviours on which a reinforcer is made contingent

12

Behaviour operates upon

The environment to produce a change in the environment

13

Reinforcement vs punishment

Consequences of any unit or class of behaviours which come to affect the subsequent frequency of those behaviours

14

With reinforcement, reinforcers

Always increase (strengthen) response rates

15

Reinforcement may be

Positive or negative

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An example of reinforcement is

Getting a food pellet, removal of annoying noise

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Punishments always

Decrease (weaken) response rates

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Punishment also may be

Positive (aversive) or negative (response cost)

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An example of punishment is

Getting an electric shock or having sweeties taken away

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There are three parts to operant conditioning episode

Antecedent
Behaviours
Consequences

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Antecedent refers to

Stimuli which exist before the relevant behaviour

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Behaviour refers to

Behaviour that the animal emits

23

Consequences refers to

Some effect that the environment then has upon the animal based upon its earlier behaviour

24

A discriminative stimulus acts as s

Signal, in the presence of which responses are emitted or suppressed

25

A discriminative stimulus is similar to

Pavlovian conditioned stimulus in that it acts as a predictor of environmental contingencies

26

A discriminate stimulus, is dissimilar, according to skinner,

In that it does not elicit the response

27

The discriminative stimulus acts as a signal

That a particular behaviour will be associated with particular consequences

28

Think of discriminative stimulus as training a dog to sit

Use rewards

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But dog doesn't sit down at every opportunity as

This doesn't produce a reward

30

There are two types of reinforcement and punishment

Primary and secondary

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Primary reinforcement is where

Stimuli which are automatically valued by the organism as they satisfy a biological need- food, water, pleasure etc

32

Secondary reinforcement is where

Stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers- e.g money, praise etc

33

Secondary reinforcement is a good example of how

Behaviour is often a mix of classical and operant conditioning

34

An example of secondary reinforcement being a good example of classical and operant conditioning is

In dog training, praise becomes a CS in place of UCS of food reward. This elicits the CR of salivation and excitement

35

Then praise can be used to operant condition behaviour instead of

Food

36

What is operant extinction?

Weakening and eventual disappearance of a behaviour that is no longer reinforced

37

Resistance to extinction is the degree to which

Non-reinforced responses persist- can vary greatly depending on how the response was initially acquired and level of reward/punishment

38

Immediate consequence to a behaviour is best

Especially for animal training

39

A delayed consequence still works but not so strongly

Better with people than animals as they can understand future consequences

40

Shaping is a complex or unlikely behaviour pattern that can be established in animals

By successive approximations to the desired response pattern

41

Chaining is conditioning several behaviours to happen

In succession and be dependent on a prior response

42

Shaping-B1-B2-B3-B4-B5-

Chaining

43

Operant generalisation is when the response will occur

With other antecedents that are similar to the one that was initially present during learning

44

Operant discrimination is when a response will be given to the learned antecedent

But not one that is markedly different

45

Operant discrimination has a general use in psychology

It enables researchers to ascertain whether an animal can actually tell the difference between 2 types of stimuli e.g colours, faces, sizes etc

46

Reinforcers occur at different

Frequencies in real life and this determines the strength of reinforcement

47

Continuous reinforcement is when

Every response of the desired nature is reinforced

48

Partial reinforcement is when

Only some of the desired responses are reinforces

49

With partial reinforcement, it can be

Ratio- certain % of responses are reinforced

Or

Interval- certain amount of time elapses before next reinforcement

50

With partial reinforcement it can also be

Fixed- reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses/ time interval

Or

Variable- reinforcement occurs after a random(ish) number of responses/ time interval

51

Although continuous reinforcement is the best schedule for learning

It also produces the quickest extinction

52

Partial reinforcement takes longer for strong learning to occur

But is also more resistant to extinction

53

Best for fast learning and resistance to extinction is to start with

Continuous reinforcement and when the behaviour is well established switch to a variable schedule that gradually becomes less frequent

54

Escape conditioning is when?

Animal learns a response that gets away from an unpleasant stimulus

55

Avoidance conditioning is when some antecedent predicts the onset of the unpleasant stimulus

Allowing the animal to avoid it via an appropriate behavioural response

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Avoidance conditioning is very difficult to distinguish as there is no way of

Exposing the animal to the antecedent without the unpleasant stimulus occurring- think about phobias