Flashcards in Conduction Blocks Deck (19):
1. Discuss some major and important things to observe when methodically reviewing an EKG.
P wave: rate and is it upright
P to QRS relationship: ratio 1:1, Pwave precedes each QRS
PR interval less than 0.12-.2sec
QRS narrow <0.12
1. Narrow QRS suggests what origin of rhythm?
super ventricular focus, widening with ventricular focus or SV with bundle block
Inverted P wave could be do to what? What if you have too many P waves
junctional or atrial focus
additional P waves signal some AVN conduction problem
What leads are Pwaves best observed in?
lead II and V1
1. What is junctional escape?
during SAN arrest, rhythm is taken over by AV node, this can deteriorate into ventricular escape (worse)
What is a retrograde Pwave?
a P wave that is delivered by the AV and as such occurs after the QRS wave
1. How can you tell the difference between junctional and ventricular escape?
ventricular rates are slower and have a wider QRS generally speaking
Name 2 distinct features of junctional escape.
no P-wave preceding QRS
slow, regular, narrow QRS
(note: can be dangerous- can lead to syncope)
1. Describe the characteristic of 1st degree AVB.
long PR interval >210, still one p-wave for each QRS
1. Describe the characteristic of 2nd degree AVB, type I v. type II.
intermittent lack of AV conduction
type I has lengthening of PR interval before dropping
type II has consistent PR interval and random dropping
types are difficult to distinguish when beats are 2:1
1. Describe the characteristics of 3rd degree AVB.
complete electrical disconnect of atria and ventricles
observe separate disconnected rhythms
2. What are some possible causes of 1st degree AVB.
inflammation or infiltration of cardiomyocytes
drug related (digoxin, B-blocker and Ca++ blockers)
high vagal tone (normal in athletes)
additionally drugs and electrolyte imbalance
3. What is "high grade" AV block?
more than one blocked P wave in a row, although PR interval is maintained when conducts, intermediate severity between 2nd and 3rd degree
AV node is not able to recover and conduct after one missed beat
How are intra cardiac recording useful?
3. What are possible causes of Type II 2ndary block?
a more ominous clinical sign, can easily progress to 3rd degree block, which has the potential to be fatal, can because by ischemia or infection (reversible)
2. Electrically speaking, what is apparent of a bundle branch blockage?
blockage of the purkinje fiber conduction causes one side to move more slowly than the other
causes widening of the QRS complex
In BBB the late activation occurs where?
toward the direction of the block
ie. LBBB, late positive V6, late negative V1
RBBB, late positive V1 (rabbit ears) and late negative V6, I and aVL
What is diagnostic of a RBBB?
prolonged QRS complex
rSr' or rSR' with inverted T in leads V1-V2
broad S in leads I, aVL and V5-V6