Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Histology Exam 1 > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (66):
1

the fluid component of blood

plasma

2

a tissue, the major constituent of which is extracellular matrix

connective tissue

3

osteoid matrix- over 90% collagen type 1 embedded in a ground substance of proteoglycans, condroitin, keratin, and hyaluronic acid. Mineralized with calcium phosphate as _______

hydroxyapatite

4

extracellular material between cartilage cells

chondroid matrix

or ground substance

5

polysaccharides formed or repeating disaccharide sub-units composed of ironic acid and hexosamine

glycosaminoglycans

6

a hexose with the primary hydroxyl group oxidized to form an acid

uronic acid

7

a hexose with an amino acid attached

hexosamine

8

in glycosaminoglycans, ironic acid, and hexosamine, ______ is the predominant molecular component

carbohydrate

9

protein core with many glucosaminoglycans attached

proteoglycan molecules

10

hyaluronic acid core with many proteoglycans attached

proteoglycan aggregates

11

most abundant protein in the human body

collagen

12

type of collagen that is most common, found in every connective tissue, forms tendons and ligaments

type I

13

type of collagen that is found only in hyaline and elastic cartilage and in the vitreous body of eye

type II

14

type of collagen that is found in reticular fibers, healing wounds, smooth muscle, fetal skin, support for cellular structure of some organs such as the liver and spleen.

Type III

15

type of collagen that is found in the basal lamina of epithelia

type IV (4)

16

type of collagen that is found in placental basal laminae, tendon, and muscle sheaths

type V

17

stained black by silver salts

agyrophillic

18

- forms a network of fibers
- type III collagen
- stained black by silver salts
- important in anchoring small blood vessels to surrounding tissue
- in smooth muscle

reticular fibers

19

- form broad, wavy diffuse stained bundles
- bundles branch and fuse forming a network
- yellow in living tissue
- protein elastin makes it yellow and elastic

elastic fibers (thinner that collagen fibers in pics)

20

- actively involved in secretion of extracellular matrix (ground substance) and in fiber formation, usually collagen
- associated with most CT
- involved in woud healing, if absent, wound will not heal
- grow easily in tissue culture (too easily)

fibroblast

21

macrophages are derived from

monocytes

22

- many are present in Loose CT
- actively phagocytic
- derived from monocytes

macrophages

23

- form embryonic connective tissue cells
- resemble fibroblasts, but smaller
- along capillaries and called pericytes

mesenchymal cells

24

- form 3 dimensional networks of cells that are in contact via long processes
- may be phagocytic
- precursonrs for blood stem cells
-function in immune response

- reticular cells

25

wandering cells that contain basophilic granules composed of heparin (a sulfated glycosaminoglycan) as well as other pharmacological agents such as histamine. important in allergic reactions

mast cells

26

antibody producing B lymphocytes

plasma cells

27

two types of adipose cells and functions

white fat: unilocular adipose- lipid storage
brown fat: multilocular storage- heat production

28

white blood cells

leukocytes

29

the dominant protein component of hyaline cartilage is

collagen type 2

30

location of hyaline cartilage

trachea

31

the main cell type of the perichondrium is

fibroblasts

32

immature cartilage cells that are not yet stuck in the lacunae

chondroblasts
- secrete extracellular matrix

33

mature cartilage cell

chondrocyte

34

2 or 3 chondrocytes and lacunae together

isogenic group

35

cartilage that is blueish white in color

hyaline cartilage

36

cartilage that is yellow in color

elastic cartilage

37

elastic cartilage has a high concentration of what fibers

elastic fibers

38

does elastic cartilage calcify?

no

39

location of elastic cartilage

ears

40

does fibrocartilage have a perichondrium?

no

41

what is the main fiber in fibrocartilage

collagen type 1

42

location of fibrocartilage

intervertebral disk

43

growth due to the secretion of matrix into the interstitial regions between cells or groups of cells

interstitial growth

44

bone that originated from cartilage template

endochondral bone

45

bone formed without a cartilage template

membranous bone

46

shaft of a bone

diaphysis

47

ends of a long bone

epiphysis

48

area of growth on a long bone

metaphysis

49

outer layer of connective tissue that covers the bone, contains fibroblasts and a high concentration of collagen fibers

periosteum

50

collagen fibers originating in the periosteum, penetrate the calcified bone matrix and bond periosteum to bone

sharpey's fibers

51

lines the internal surface of bones, one cell thick, NOT 2 layers

endosteum

52

mature bone cells that synthesize and secrete the osteiod matrix that will calcify as the bones extracellular matrix

osteoblasts

53

mature bone cells, osteoblasts that have not become embedded in calcified bone matrix

osteocytes

54

act to reabsorb bone, remodeled constantly

osteoclasts

55

calcitonin does what in bone, where does it come from

inhibits action of osteoclasts
- lowers Ca++ concentration in blood
- thyroid

56

what causes the Ca++ concentration to raise in blood, causes osteoclasts to be more active, and where does it come from

- parathyroid hormone
- from parathyroid gland

57

as a strand of matrix (in bone) is invested with inorganic salts, it is called a

spicule

58

spicules fuse with one another and form

trabeculae

59

the secretion by osteoblasts is cyclic and results in layers of bone material called

lamellae - lamellar bone

60

most of the bones in the mammalian body are initially formed by

endochondral means

61

two other words for spongy bone

cancellous or trabecular

62

concentric sub laters surrounding longitudinal tunnels for blood vessels and nerves that are called the

haversian canals

63

radical tunnels called _____ ______ that connect the haversian canals with one another and with the bone marrow and periosteum regions

Volkman's canals

64

the ____ and _____ are tubes though witch blood vessels and nerves can pass within the compact bone

volkmans and haversian

65

when a layer of chondroblasts can lay down matrix at the outer edge of a mass of cartilage

appositional growth

66

intramembranous formation occurs mainly in the

bones of the skull, flat