The Cell Flashcards Preview

Histology Exam 1 > The Cell > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Cell Deck (68):
1

cells for contraction

muscle cells

2

cells for conduction of electrical impulses

nerve cells

3

cells for the storage of lipids

adipose cells

4

cells for the synthesis of of enzymes

secretory cells

5

cells for the support of tissues, connecting them together, and cushioning

connective tissus cells

6

cells for protection

immune system cells and skin

7

cells for gas transport

erythrocytes

8

3 major cell components

1. nucleus
2. cytoplasm
3. plasmalemma (plasma membrane or cell membrane)

9

structure and function are

linked

10

major constituents of the cytoplasm

1. cytoskeleton
2. organelles
3. cytoplasmic inclusions

11

responsible for maintaining shape of the cell, segregating compartments to some extent, transport of organelles in cytoplasm, locomotion, division.

cytoskeleton

- microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules, centrioles

12

-composed of protein tubulin in a polymerized form
-part of the cytoskeleton

microtubules

13

_______ are the basic units of cilia, flagella and centrioles

microtubules

14

in the case of cilia and flagella, an additional protein known as _____ is present along the lengths of some of the tubules
-responsible for the sliding of cilia and flagella against one another

dynein

15

microtubules are depolymerized by a chemical called _____
- if exposed to it, cells will stop moving and round up

colchicine

16

are smaller than microtubules and are composed of actin, a contractile protein
- cause contractile movement of cells

microfilaments

17

roles in cellular function are still open to question. some composed of keratin, part of the cytoskeleton

intermediate filaments

18

what holds cells together

cellular junctions

19

organelle specialized for the production of ATP

mitochondria

20

mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm where ______ ______ are highest

metabolic rates

21

are where there are 1000s of mitochondria because of the high metabolic rate, an example

liver cells

22

mitochondria have two membranes, inner and outer. the inner is in folds called

cristae

23

mitochondria have their own ____ and undergo ______

DNA
division

24

Mitochondria evolved from

a bacteria like organism that became intracellular symbionts of eukaryotic cells

25

_____ is formed by the degradation of glucose molecules to ___ and ____

ATP
CO2
H2O

26

formation of ATP from glucose happened from what 3 processes

1. glycolysis
2. Krebs cycle
3. oxidative phosphorylation

27

glycolysis occurs in the _____

cell cytoplasm

28

pyruvic acid is converted to

acetyl co-enzyme A that goes INTO the mitochondria

29

what two processes happen in the mitochondria

Krebs cycle
oxidative phosphorylation

30

glycolysis results in ___ molecules of ATP

2

31

Krebs and oxidative phosphorylation result in ___ molecules of ATP

36

32

___% of ATP is formed in the mitochondrion

95%

33

the ____ ______ plays a role in processing and packaging of material synthesized within the cell

Golgi body

34

Golgi body is formed of the forming face _____ _____ and the maturing face _____ _____

forming face = convex side
maturing face = concave side

35

convex side of Golgi

forming face (cis)

36

concave side of Golgi

maturing face (trans)

37

spaces through which molecules can enter or leave the nucleus

nuclear pores

38

two types of chromatin

heterochromatin
euchromatin

39

highly condensed chromatin

heterochromatin

40

less condensed chromatin

euchromatin

41

structures are where rRNA is synthesized for the construction of ribosomes

nucleolus or multiple nucleoli

42

the smallest structural unit of a living organism that can function independently if placed in an appropriate environment

cell

43

developed independently by both Schleiden and Schwann in 1832. States that all living organisms are constructed of small subunits called cells

The cell theory

44

composition of mammalian tissues
3 things

1. cells
2. intercellular substance
3. tissue fluid

45

egg + sperm =

zygote

fertilization

46

establishes primary germ layers

gastrulation

47

what are the 3 primary germ layers

1. ectoderm
2. mesoderm
3. endoderm

48

establishes specific tissue types- involves cellular differentiation - specific function

histogenesis

49

part of the plasmalemma, functions in recognition and adhesion

glycocalyx

50

a layered membrane bound organelle that consists of a network of tubular and vesicular cisternae that ramify throughout large volumes of cytoplasm.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

51

membrane of ER is continuous with the

nuclear membrane

52

site of processing of lipid and protein for cellular functions

ER

53

ribosomes attached with outer surface
processes proteins

rough ER

54

no ribosomes attached, processing of lipids

smooth ER

55

specialized smooth ER associated with striated muscle. specialized for storage and release of Ca+

sarcoplasmic reticulum

56

period between divisions, 3 major components: G1, S, G2. synthesis of DNA takes place during the 'S' stage

interphase

57

replicated chromosomes condense (each chromatid is connected to its duplicate at the centromere), nuclear envelope breaks down near end of this phase, the nucleolus disappears, and the mitotic spindle forms

prophase

58

replicated chromosomes align on the "equator" of the mitotic apparatus (spindle). the chromatids are attached to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle at the centromere.

metaphase

59

duplicate chromatids separate at the centromere and move toward opposite poles of the mitotic spindle

anaphase

60

chromosomes reach the poles of the mitotic spindle, nuclear envelope (membrane) reforms, cell completes division

telophase

61

non membrane bound accumulations of material in the cell cytoplasm

cytoplasmic inclusions

62

6 cytoplasmic inclusions

1. lipid droplets
2. glycogen
3. melanin (pigment)
4. lipofuscin (pigment)
5. crystals of various types
6. hemosiderin (pigment)

63

in people who smoke, gums get brown near teeth. increased amount of melanin. benign, not a cancer…just gross

smoker's melanosis

64

internalization of materials outside the cell by the invagination of plasma membrane to form a vesicle that engulfs external materials and then pinches off forming a vesicle in the cytoplasm

endocytosis

65

transport of materials out of cells. internally formed membrane bound vesicles rise with plasma membrane and release their contents to the external environment (secretion)

exocytosis

66

membrane bound vesicles that comprise the digestive and excretory systems of the cell

lysosomes

67

digestion of material from out side the cell takes place here

heterophagosomes

68

function is to recycle intracellular material, type of lysososme

autophagosomes