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Histology Exam 1 > Nervous Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous Tissue Deck (61):
1

consists of the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system (CNS)

2

consisting of the nerves extending toward or away from CNS and ganglia (aggregates of nerve cell bodies outside CNS)

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

3

the two major types of nervous cells

glial cells and neurons

4

responsible for condition, propagation and reception of nervous impulses. processes called axons or dendrites extend from these cells

neurons

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(neuroglia) cells associated with neurons. no axons or dendrites. these cells are involved in nutrition, support, insulation and protection of neurons

glial cells

6

nervous tissue where neuron perkikarya (cell bodies), glial cells, axons, dendrites, synapses are found

gray matter

7

nervous tissue where axons, myelin sheaths, oligodendrocytes, and global cells are found. no neuron perikarya, no synapses

white matter

8

nerve cell body, contains nucleus and typical cell organelles

perikaryon

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nerves have lots of this for synthesis of structural and transport proteins, Nissel bodies seen with light microscope

rough ER

10

pigments deposit vesicles, increase with age, from autophagosome activity

lipofuscin deposit.

inclusions

11

cell processes, may be branched, forms receptive area for synaptic contacts from other neurons. neurons have more than one of these

dendrite

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single, long, thin cell process extending away form the perikaryon. may be branched, the ends of branches form synapses with other neurons or muscle cells, may be myelinated or not
each neuron only has one of these

axon

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oligodendroglia myelinate in

CNS

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Schwann cells myelinate in

PNS

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pyramid shaped region where axon originates from perikaryon

axon hillock

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unmyelinated initial portion of axon

initial segment

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axons carry _______ to synapses at end of axon

electrical impulses (action potentials)

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specialized junctions with other cells that are along the length or at the end of an axon.
- act as transmission points for electoral impulses or chemical (ionic changes)

synapses

19

synapses at end of an axon or axon branches that are swollen into a club shape are called

boutons terminaux

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synapses along the length of an axon result in ________ (swellings) in the axon called

varicosities

boutons en passage

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part of the neuron plasmalemma

terminal or presynaptic membrane

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this is a space between the presynaptic membrane of the axon and the plasmalemma of the cell that receives the synaptic input

synaptic gap or cleft

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part of the plasmalemma of a cell that receives input

postsynaptic membrane

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many small vesicles in the bouton that contain neurotransmitters

synaptic vesicles

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name two neurotransmitters

acetylcholine and serotonin

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type of neuron where there are more than 2 processes ( one axon + multiple dendrites) most of neurons on brain and spinal cord

multipolar neuron

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multipolar neurons are found mainly

in the brain and spinal cord

28

the brain and spinal cord consist of what type of neuron

multipolar neuron

29

type of neuron where there are 2 major processes ( axon and dendrite ) but may be branched at ends, sensory neurons in retina, cochlea, and olfactory epithelium have this type

bipolar neuron

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type of neuron where there are two major processes that are fused oblong portions closest to perikaryon, found in spinal ganglia and in some cranial ganglia

pseudounipolar

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pseudo unipolar developmentally starts out as

bipolar

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efferent, action potential moves from CNS to effector organ (e.g. muscle) in peripheral regions

motor neurons

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afferent, action potential moves from sensory organ to CNS (e.g. neuron processes (effectively dendrites, but often called axons) associated with pacinian corpuscles (touch and pressure)

sensory neurons

34

form connections between neurons

interneurons

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there are many more ____ ____ in the nervous system than there are neurons

glial cells

36

4 glial cells found in CNS

1. astrocyte
2. oligodendrocyte
3. microglia cell
4. ependymal cell

37

provide both mechanical and metabolic support for neurons, regulating the environment where they function, they contribute to the blood brain barrier and control transport of substances from the blood to neural tissue, they also help coordinate nerve pathway development

astrocyte

glial from CNS

38

two types of astrocytes

protoplasmic astrocytes
fibrous astrocytes

39

granular cytoplasm, many branches on thicker and shorted processes. found in gray matter.

protoplasmic astrocytes

40

long slender processes, found in white matter mainly, function unknown, type of glial cell in CNS

fibrous astrocyte

41

forms part of the myelin sheath for a few axons in CNS
smaller than astrocyte
both gray and white matter
these cells must be futures with neurons in order to get neurons to grow in tissue culture - interactive association

oligodendrocyte

42

provide a protective function to nervous tissue in that that can become phagocytic
elongated cell body that stains densely, can be confused with oli.
glial cell in CNS

microglia cells

43

line the cavities in the CNS
form the lining of the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, make a contribution to the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CNS)
dilated cells forming single layer of cubical epithelium that lines the entire neurocoel

ependymal cells

44

types of glial cells in the PNS

1. Schwann cells
2. satellite cells

45

forms a part of the myelin sheath for an axon in PNS

Schwann cells

46

encapsulate and provide protein and support for the cell bodies of peripheral neurons in the many peripheral ganglia

satellite cell

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nerves are surrounded by a thick connective tissue sheath composed of collagenous fibers and fibroblasts and containing small blood vessels that is called the _____. this extends into the nerve and between the fascicles.

epineurium

48

groups of axons =, each which is ensheathed by a single or multiple folds (layers of plasmalemma from a Schwann cell) of a sheath cell
-

nerve fibers

49

each bundle (or fascicle) of axons is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the

perineurium

50

each axon within each bindle is individually surrounded by a layer of reticular connective tissue called the

endoneurium

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myelin acts to ____ axon, it _____ ___ condition of electrical impulses due to the formation of nodes of rangier where adjacent sheath cells meet along the length of an axon

insulate axon

speeds up condition

52

the ___ the nodes of rangier along a given axon, the faster the transmission

fewer

53

involuntary component to the nervous system called

autonomic nervous system

54

autonomic nervous system important in three things

1. control of smooth muscle
2. secretion of some glands
3. modulation of some glands

55

two parts of the autonomic nervous system

1. sympathetic
2. parasympathetic

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part of the autonomic nervous system
neurotransmitter is norepinephrine- adrenergic synapses.
generally stimulates
enhances activity

sympathetic

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neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system

norepinephrine

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part of the autonomic nervous system
neurotransmitter is acetylcholine- cholinergic synapses
generally slows activity

parasympathetic

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neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system

acetylcholine

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an aggregation of neurons and associated glial cells outside the CNS

ganglion

61

purely sensory ganglia, part of voluntary nervous system, connective tissue capsule surrounds ganglia
- neurons cortical (peripheral)
- shoe Nissl bodies and lipofuscin

dorsal root ganglia, cranial ganglia