What rates of ATP are used in exercise?
Jogging 10km/h - 50% vo2max - 1.0mmol ATP/kg dm/s
Running 20km/h - 100% vo2max - 2.0mmol ATP/kg dm/s
Sprinting 36km/h - 180% vo2max - 3.6mmol ATP/kg dm/s
Maximal isometic contraction 12.0mmol ATP/kg dm/
What is the adenylate kinase reaction?
ATP formed rapidly by the transfer of phosphate from one molecule of ADP to another.
Explain lactate formation
Lactacte form when excess hydrogen ions from NADH combine temporarily with pyruvate, this allows the regeneration of NAD+ that was converted to NADH when it accepted the H+ removed from 3-phosphoglcealdehyde earlier in the glycolytic pathway
How does increased H+ contribute to fatigue?
- Inhibits anaerobic glycolysis
- Inhibits cross-bridge cycling
- Stimulates free nerve endings
Explain the Cori cycle
Lactate produced in the skeletal muscle enters blood and is transported to liver to resynthesized to glucose to be returned to skeletal muscle to be used as energy or stored as glycogen
Summary of fat metabolism
- Transport into blood stream
- Transport into cell
- Transport into mitochondria
- Beta - HAD
What are the 3 key variable in endurance performance?
- Exercise economy (energy output)
- Lactate threshold (marker of energy provision)
- Energy Systems
- Energy Systems
Immediate energy systems and their limitations. The relationship between substrates and energy provision - especially RER. The key intermediary role that acetyl CoA plays in the energy systems.
- Protein consumption
Considerations around protein consumption and the 5 factors to consider. Evidence that underpins this approach. Functional outcomes.
- Fat oxidation and exercise
What factors regulate fat oxidation, when is it optimal, when is it limiting? Are their particular factors that regulate fatty acid availability?
- Lactate production and exercise
How can we determine someone’s lactate threshold from a data set. How can we use this information to determine someone’s training intensity?
- Carbohydrate feeding and muscle glycogen availability
Links to energy systems and ATP resynthesis - how does exercise intensity drive substrate usage? What role does muscle glycogen play in this?
6.Endurance adaptations to training
Understanding of the endurance adaptations to training.