What are the physiological differences between endurance athletes and sedentary people?
They will have \+ Increased mitochondrial biogenesis. \+ Ability to burn fat more efficiently. \+ A greater network of capillaries in the lungs and muscles. \+ Greater stroke volume. \+ More Slow twitch muscle fibres.
Who has a higher maximal heart rate, a sedentary or athletic individual?
A sedentary, this is because it is more efficient to pump blood quickly than to wait for the heart to fill. If you are an athlete, it is more efficient to wait for the heart to fill, hence a slower max HR.
Endurance can be defined as the capacity to sustain a given velocity or power output for the longest possible time”.
What percentage red blood cells does the average person have in a blood sample?
What is the upper limit for red blood cells according to physiology institute regulations?
What tracks hematocrit in athletes over the season?
A biological passport is used to track and measure hematocrite levels. This is to prevent athletes doping.
How long do erythrocytes take to fully mature?
What are two doping measures an athlete might take to increase their red blood cell count?
- Inject EPO
2. Blood transfusion
How long does it take from inspiration for oxygen to reach the mitochondria?
Approximately 2 mins.
What does the Q stand for in the Fick equation?
Q = cardiac output
What are the three key measures in endurance performance?
- Vo2 max
- Exercise economy
- Lactate threshold
What are the benefits of endurance athletes having more slow twitch (type 1) muscle fibres?
+ Aerobic respiration
+ Ability to store triglycerides, which prevents athletes from using muscle glycogen.