Contraception Flashcards Preview

Year 2 OBGYN > Contraception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Contraception Deck (25):
1

what is the most commonly used spermicide agent?

nonoxynol-9

2

what are the disadvantages of spermicide?

- no protection against STD
- high failure rate
- irritation
- messy

3

a diaphragm should be used in conjunction with what other method?

spermicide

4

what is the role of progestin in hormonal contraception?

- inhibits ovulation
- increases thickening of cervical mucous

5

what is the role of estrogen in hormonal contraception?

- maintain the endometrium
- prevent unscheduled bleeding

6

what are the three types of formulations for hormonal contraception?

- fixed dose (monophasic)
- combination phasic
- daily progestin (mini pill)

7

the progestin component of hormonal contraception consists of derivatives of what compounds?

testosterone or progesterone

8

drospirenone is derived from what compound?

17-a-spironolactone

9

what are the effects of drospirenone?

anti-androgenic and anti-mineralocorticoid activities

10

how is drospirenone anti-androgenic?

inhibits ovarian androgen production like other progestins, and it also blocks androgen receptors in the skin

11

what is the pharmacological aim of the estrogen component of hormonal contraception?

use the lowest possible dosage to achieve satisfaction, cycle control, and fewest side effects

12

what is the MOA of combination oral contraceptives?

- suppression of ovulation: progestational agent MOST effective
- estrogen suppresses FSH secretion, progesterone suppresses LH secretion

13

what is the MOA of progestin oral contraceptives?

- thickens cervical mucous
- inhibits sperm migration
- inhibits implantation

14

what are the metabolic effects of estrogen in OC?

- nausea
- breast tenderness
- fluid retention

15

what are the metabolic effects of progestin in OC?

- weight gain
- acne
- adverse mood changes

16

what is the rate of venous thromboembolism with OC compared to pregnancy?

1:1000

17

combination OCs should not be prescribed in what population?

- women over 35 who smoke cigarettes or other nicotine
- migraines with aura

18

which drug classes can interact with OCs?

- barbiturates
- sulfonamides
- cyclophosphamide
- rifampin

19

what is the MOA of emergency contraception? when must it be taken?

disruption of ovulation

within 72 hours of coitus

20

what is the most common long acting contraceptive steroid? what is the MOA?

depo-medoxyprogesterone

- inhibits ovulation
- thins endometrium
- thickens cervical mucous

21

nexplanon is what type of contraceptive?

progestin implant

22

what is the MOA of a progestin implant? how long is it effective?

daily release of progestin causes

- ovulation suppression
- cervical mucous thickening
- atrophic endometrium

36 months

23

what are the noncontraceptive health benefits of implants?

- decreased risk of iron deficiency anemia, PID, endometrial cancer
- decreases ovulation pain
- reduces symptoms of endometriosis and primary dysmenorrhea

24

what is the MOA of a copper IUD?

- local, sterile, inflammatory reaction within uterine cavity
- impedes sperm penetration / migration

25

what are the adverse effects of IUD?

- uterine bleeding
- uterine perforation