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Year 2 OBGYN > Menopause > Flashcards

Flashcards in Menopause Deck (29):
1

definition: menopause

what is it evidenced by?

- permanent cessation of menses after significant decrease of ovarian estrogen production
- evidenced by 12 consecutive months with no menstrual bleeding

2

definition: perimenopause

period before menopause that is the transition from the reproductive to the nonreproductive years during which ovarian estrogen production may fluctuate unpredictably

3

definition: climacteric

time period during which the changes of menopause occur

4

what is the most significant change in perimenopause?

menstrual irregularity

5

what is the mean age of menopause?

51

6

how does (heavy) alcohol use affect menopause?

delays it

7

what are the endocrine transitions during menopause?

- menopausal transition
- progesterone production stops (PMS symptoms disappear)
- androgen production decreases as well as SHBG

8

during menopausal transition, what happens to the ovarian follicles? what is the effect on estrogen?

- become resistant to FSH stimulation

- estrogen secretion falls, but there is still a lot in the periphery due to conversion in muscle and adipose tissue

9

what is the effect of the cessation of progesterone production during menopause?

- normally progesterone production protects the endometrium from hyperstimulation
- lack of progesterone in association with circulating levels of estrogen may increase a woman's risk of endometrial hyperplasia

10

what are the signs and symptoms of menopause?

- alteration of menstrual function
- changes in mood / behavior
- vasomotor instability
- urogenital atrophy (loss of collagen, normal pH, lubrication)

11

menopause is characterized by the lack of menses for how many months?

12

12

what is the cause of the vasomotor instability during menopause?

changes in NTs and PGs cause sympathetic activation and regional dilation

13

what is the #1 MORBIDITY in menopausal women?

osteoporosis

14

what is the best test for osteoporosis?

DEXA

15

is serum evaluation for bone markers a good indicator of osteoporosis?

no

16

how does estrogen therapy affect osteoporosis?

estrogen therapy is a potent antiresporptive agent for decreasing osteoclastic activity

17

what is the #1 MORTALITY in menopausal women?

CVD

18

how does lack of estrogen during menopause impact risk for CVD?

lack of estrogen causes changes in lipids that predispose to atherosclerosis
- decreased HDL
- increased TGs
- ratio of cholesterol to HDL over 4

19

what are the treatment options for menopause?

- estrogen therapy (if no uterus)
- combined estrogen and progesterone therapy (with uterus)
- alternatives to hormone therapy

20

what are the benefits of hormone therapy?

- relief of vasomotor symptoms
- improvement in mood and well being
- improvement in urogenital atrophy
- prevention and treatment of osteoporosis / hip fractures
- decrease in colon cancer
- improvement in dental health

21

what are the contraindications for hormone therapy?

- breast cancer within 5 years
- estrogen dependent neoplasm
- undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
- active, recent, or history of hormone related thromboembolic disease
- active liver disease or liver dysfunction
- known or suspected pregnancy
- hypersensitivity to hormone therapy preparations

22

what is the ACOG recommendation for hormone therapy?

should be used for short term (5 years) relief of menopausal symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and should by individually tailored to a woman's need for treatment

23

what are the estrogen side effects of hormone therapy?

- vaginal bleeding
- breast tenderness
- mood changes
- weight gain / water retention

24

what are the progestin side effects of hormone therapy?

- affective symptoms
- weight gain

25

what are SERMs? what are their effects on lipids / bone, breast, and uterus?

- selective estrogen receptor modulators

- estrogen like effect on lipids and bone
- estrogen blocking effect on breast
- estrogen effect on uterus varies depending on agent

26

what are the two SERM agents? what are their effects on the uterus?

tamoxifen - proliferative effect
raloxifen - no proliferation

27

what are the two general non-estrogen alternatives to hormone therapy? what are the specific agents?

- steroids (progestins, danazol)
- non-steroidal (clonidine, vitamin E, SSRI)

28

what is the MOA of clonidine in the context of menopausal hormone therapy?

blocks adrenergic activity related to hot flashes

29

what is premature ovarian failure? what are the causes?

- menopause occurs spontaneously before 40

- secondary to natural causes, chemotherapy, or surgery