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Flashcards in control of breathing Deck (37)
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1

at rest what is the partial pressure of oxygen?

100mmHg

2

at rest what is the partial pressure of CO2?

40mmHg

3

what is breathing modulated by?

- reflexes (coughing)
- volitional control (breath hold)
- vocalisation (singing)
- physiological challenges (exercise)
- emotional events (crying)

4

what is the name of normal rhythmic breathing?

eupnea

5

what is the name for short breath?

dyspnea

6

normal rhythmic breathing is controlled by what?

- respiratory related neutrons
- central pattern generators
- respiratory motor neurons

7

what is the function of respiratory related neutrons (RRN)?

fire more APs during respiratory cycle

8

what is the function of central pattern generators (CPG)?

in brainstem (medulla oblongata), independently generate respiratory rhythm

9

what is the function of respiratory motor neurons?

innervate respiratory muscles, axons via phrenic nerve innervate diaphragm

10

brain receives respiratory neural signals via?

chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors

11

what is the function of chemoreceptors in control of breathing?

detect chemical changes - feedback on blood partial pressure of oxygen and CO2 and blood pH

12

what is the function of mechanoreceptors in control of breathing?

provide mechanical feedback on mechanical status of lungs, chest walls and airways

13

what does the brainstem control?

- upper airway
- respiration
- temp
- HR
- BP

14

what is the term for a decrease in oxygen?

hypoxia

15

what is the term for an increase in CO2?

hypercapnia

16

what are peripheral chemoreceptors?

small highly vascularised bodies in the region of aortic arch and carotid sinuses

17

chemoreceptors in the aortic arch send info via which nerve?

vagus

18

chemoreceptors in the carotid sinuses send info via which nerve?

glossopharyngeal

19

peripheral chemoreceptors send info to which region of the brainstem?

NTS

20

what are central chemoreceptors?

clusters of neurons in the brainstem that are activated when partial pressure of CO2 increases (hypercapnia) or pH decreases

21

what is the effect of reduced partial pressure of oxygen on ventilation ?

little effect until PO2 drops to 60mmHg then there is progressive hyperventilation

22

where does hypoxic response originate?

carotid and aortic bodies

23

what is the result of increases PCO2 on ventilation?

small change in PCO2 has large effect of ventilation (unlike O2)

24

where does hypercapnia response originate?

central chemoreceptors

25

in the respiratory system, what do mechanoreceptors detect?

movement of lungs and chest wall

26

describe the action of mechanoreceptors in respires to lunch inflation?

inflation of lungs activates mechanoreceptors, they send neural signals via the vagus nerve to NTS
NTS then adjusts ventilation accordingly

27

where may mechanoreceptors be found?

airway smooth muscle and airway epithelium

28

where does the NTS receive info from?

peripheral chemoreceptors and mechaoreceptors

29

information entering the NTS is processed by what?

respiratory neurons in the brainstem

30

which neurons activate inspiration?

inspiratory neurons