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Flashcards in Copper Deck (39):
1

copper is found in the body in what two states

Cu1+ Cu2+

2

copper sources include

organ meats, shellfish, whole grain, nuts, seeds

3

copper is bound to organic substances in food and is release in the ___ by hydrochloric acid and pepsin

ST

4

copper is release into the SI by

proteolytic enzymes

5

prior to being absorbed, most Cu2+ is reduced to Cu1+ by

copper reductase

6

copper is mostly absorbed in the SI in what two pathways

active carrier mediated transporters (CTR1) and DMT 1
non saturable passive diffusion

7

factors that enhance copper absorption

a.a's : histidine, and sulfer containing aa's
organic acids: hydrochloric, citric, lactic, acetic, malic
low copper status

8

factors that inhibit copper absorption

phytates
vitamin c
other minerals :Zn Fe, Mb, Ca, K
hypochlorhydria or excessive use of antacids

9

once absorbed, the intestinal cell can do what three things with copper

used by enterocyte
stored in enterocyte (for use or elim at metallothionin)
transported through cytosol to enter circulation

10

copper enters the blood from enterocytes bound primarily to___

albumin

11

copper is first brought to the

liver

12

in the liver copper binds to____ and then is transferred to ceruloplasmin for transport to ther tissues

metallothionein

13

copper concentrates primarily in the

liver brain kidney

14

copper is stored bound to various proteins, primarily_____

metallothionine

15

functions of copper

cofactor in various copper dependent enzymes
angiogenesis
production of neutrophils

16

some of the enzymes that are dependent on copper

ferroxidases
superoxide dismutase (SOD)
cytochrome c oxidase
lysyl oxidase
dopamine monooxygenase
tyrosinase

17

______ oxidizes Fe2+ to ferric acid Fe3+

ferroxidase

18

by binding copper_______ prevents free copper ions from catalyzing oxidative damage

ceroloplasmin

19

SOD functions as an ____ by catalyzing superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide

antioxidant

20

Lysyl oxidase is required for the cross linking of ___ and ____

collagen and elastin

21

dopamine monooxygenase is responsible for the conversion of ____ to NE

dopamine

22

tyrosinase is required for the formation of ___

pigment melanin

23

copper is excreted primarily through the _____ via bile

intestines

24

increase risk of copper deficiency in what types of situations:

infants exclusively fed cows milk
high supplemental zinc can lead to Cu deficiency

25

S&S of copper def

microcytic, hypochromic anemia
neutropenia and impaired immune function
hypopigmentation of skin and hair

26

clinical indications for copper supplementation

only used in copper deficiency

27

should cupric oxide be used as a copper supplement

NO!

28

examples of copper preparations

cupric sulfate
gluconate
citrate
picolinate
oxide
chloride
acetate
carbonate

29

supplemental doses of 2mg of more of copper may cause:

n/v
constipation

30

Sx of acutecopper toxicity

abd pain
n/v/d

31

chronic copper oxicity may lead to

kidney damage
death

32

Wilsons disease is a result of

genetic disorder of copper metabolism

33

wilsons disease results in what

defective biliary copper excretion

34

in wilsons disease, copper will accumulate where?

liver
brain
kidneys
cornea
spleen

35

treatment of wilsons disease

low copper diet and use of penecillamine

36

prolonged copper deficiency can cause a secondary ___ deficiency

iron deficiency anemia

37

high supplemental ___ can lead to copper deficiencey

zinc

38

copper forms an insoluble complex with ___ in the digestive tract preventing the absorption of either mineral

Molybdenum

39

____ may chelate copper and increase its urinary excretion

ALA