CPC 4 Chest pain and hypertension Flashcards Preview

► Med Misc 46 > CPC 4 Chest pain and hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in CPC 4 Chest pain and hypertension Deck (97):
1

Atypical presentations of myocardial infarction

Back, shoulder or jaw pain.
Sweating
Nausea
Lightheaded/dizzy, fatigued
Breathless
Anxiety
ALL THESE ARE MORE COMMON IN WOMEN.

2

Differential diagnoses of chest pain, by anatomy:
Pleura
Lung
GIT
Aorta
Musculoskeletal
Heart.

Pleura: effusion, pneumothorax, malignancy
Lung: infection, tumour, infarct, PE.
GIT: stomach, perforation, oesophagitis.
Aorta: aneurysm, dissection
Musculoskeletal
Heart.

3

Differential diagnoses of chest pain, by anatomy - anatomical areas.

Pleura
Lung
GIT
Aorta
Musculoskeletal
Heart.

4

Cause of interscapula pain

Aortic dissection

5

Cause of pleuritic pain

Pulmonary embolus

6

Cause of positional pain

Pericarditis

7

Signs of aortic dissection

Unequal BP L/R UL, absent pulse

8

Signs of congestive heart failure

Raised JVP, gallop S3, Pulmonary oedema

9

How to establish the diagnosis of an MI

a rise or fall in cTn between first assessment and repeat 3-6hr later, coupled with a strong pre-test likelihood.

10

What are D-dimers?

Fibrin degradation products released from thrombi by
fibrinolysis

11

When are D-dimers raised

PE, DVT, pregnancy, after surgery, inflammation or
malignancy etc
Used to rule out PE as high negative predictive value.

12

Where do fibrofatty plaques occur?

At sites of decreased haemodynamic shear stress e.g artery bifurcations.

13

Clinical events caused by fibrofatty plaques

Renal failure and hypertension, intestinal angina (mesenteric), angina pectoris (coronary), carotid stenosis, aortic aneurysm.

14

Pleural causes of chest pain

Effustion, pneumothorax, malignancy

15

Lung tissue causes of chest pain

Infection, tumour, infarct, PE

16

GIT causes of chest pain

Stomach ulcer/perforation, GORD, oesophagitis.

17

Aortic causes of chest pain

aneurysm, dissection

18

Name the key coronary arteries

Left anterior descending artery, the circumflex artery, the right coronary artery.

19

Causes of pansystolic murmurs

MR, VSD

20

Cause of pericardial rub

pericardial effusion

21

Other name for costochondritis

Tietze's Syndrome

22

Name all the cardiac biomarkers in blood

Trop I and Trop T (good)
CK-MB and myoglobin (fall rapidly).
CK and LDH (slight rise)

23

Most important risk factors for CVD: non-modifiable, behavioural, medical

Non-modifiable: age, gender, PMH, FH.
Behavioural: Smoking
Medical: Htn, DM, high LDL, low HDL.

24

How does smoking cause CVD

Endothelial damage
Incr. thrombus formation/platelet activation.

25

What is a lipoprotein

A macromolecular complex of lipids and proteins held together by non-covalent forces. They are required for transport of lipids both intra- and extra-vascularly.

26

Secondary causes of hypercholesterolaemia

Hypothyroidism
Nephrotic syndrome
Immunoglobulins
Cholestasis
Anorexia
Cyclosporins, sirolimus, anti-epileptics.

27

Secondary causes of mixed hyperlipidaemia

Nephrotic syndrome
Hypothyroidism

28

Secondary causes of hypertriglyceridaemia

T1 and 2 DM
CRF
Obesity
Alcohol
Hypothyroidism
Immunoglobulins
Oestrogens, corticosteroids, progestogens, protease inhibitors, retinoids.

29

How can you split primary dyslipidaemias?

Disorders of synthesis and secretion.
Disorders of metabolism.

30

What is familial hypoercholesterolaemia?

An inherited genetic defect leading to raised LDL-C levels from birth and hence premature atherosclerosis. Underdiagnosed.

31

Complications of fibrofatty plaques

Fissuring or ulceration
Calcification
Mural thrombus
Rupture

32

What can cause coronary artery occlusion?

Thrombus
Plaque haemorrhage
Coronary artery dissection
Vasospasm
Embolic (vegetations, mural thrombus, paradoxical emboli)

33

Ischaemia effects on the myocardium

ATP depletion within seconds
Loss of contractility in under 2 minutes.
ATP 60 minutes.

34

Timescale of morphological changes post-MI:
0.5-4 hr
4-12 hr
12-24 hr
1-3 days
3-7 days
7-14 days
2-8 weeks
> 2 months

0.5-4 hr - No change
4-12 hr - Faint mottling
12-24 hr - Dark mottling
1-3 days - Yellow infarct centre
3-7 days - Hyperaemic border
7-14 days - Yellow core, red margin.
2-8 weeks - Scar formation
> 2 months - Scar complete

35

Risks of reperfusion after MI

Reperfusion injury
Myocardial stunning
Haemorrhage
Early rupture

36

Causes of acute ischaemia

Inadequate supply: coronary artery stenosis, thrombus, dissection & spasm, microcirculatory dysfunction, anaemia.
Excessive demand: LV hypertrophy, LV dilatation.

37

MI complications (immediate)

Contractile dysfunctions
Arrhythmias
Myocardial ruptures

38

How much fluid is needed in the pericardium to cause acute tamponade

200-300 ml

39

MI complications (chronic)

Pericarditis
Infarct expansion
Mural thrombus
Ventricular aneurysm
Progressive heart failure.

40

When is secondary hypertension likely to be the cause of asymptomatic hypertension?

In a patient

41

What are the causes of secondary hypertension

Renal (>80%)
Endocrine disease
Coarctation of the aorta (in young)
Pre-eclampsia
Drugs

42

What are some renal causes of hypertension

Chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, congenital polycystic kidneys, renal artery stenosis

43

What are some endocrine causes of hypertension?

Conn’s syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, phaeochromocytoma, acromegaly, diabetes, hyperparathyroidism

44

What suggests a renal cause of hypertension

History of renal disease
Recurrent urinary tract infection
Certain drugs (inc losartan and aspirin)

45

What is accelerated hypertension and what are its symptoms?

BP>200/130 : visual impairment, nausea, vomiting, fits, headaches

46

What cause of secondary hypertension can also give you palpitations and sweating episodes?

Phaeochromocytoma.

47

What test would you do to check renal impairment or Conn's syndrome as a cause of hypertension?

Urea (renal impairment)
Electrolytes (hypokalaemia in Conn's syndrome)

48

Why would you do an ECG in someone with hypertension?

for left ventricular hypertrophy myocardial or ischaemia

49

Why would you do a urine dipstick in someone with hypertension?

To check for haematuria/proteinuria

50

Why would you do an MSSU and cytology for someone with hypertension?

To check for renal damage due to a possible infection and/or red cell casts.

51

Why would you do a renal ultrasound in someone with hypertension?

To check the kidneys.

52

Why would you do a CXR in someone with hypertension?

To look for heart failure and/or rib notching.

53

Why would you do an echo in someone with htn?

For left ventricular hypertrophy.

54

Which hypertensive patients would you do a urinary catecholamines or a magnetic resonance image of the renal arteries?

In those under 35 yr or where a secondary cause is suspected.

55

What is carotid sinus syndrome?

A condition (generally in the elderly) where increased responsiveness of the carotid baroreceptors leads to arrhythmia or a drop in blood pressure.

56

What is orthostatic hypotension

A greater than 20 mmHg drop in systolic blood pressure on standing.

57

Chest pain relieved by nitrates

Fast: angina
Slow: oesophageal spasm

58

Chest pain caused by meals

angina or oesophageal spasm

59

Precipitating factors for pain from oesophageal disease

Food, lying flat, hot drinks, alcohol.

60

Initial management of acutely ill patients with chest pain

Admit, check pulse and BP in both arms, JVP, heart sounds, check legs for DVT. Give O2 as necessary. IV line. Relieve pain (morphine + anti-emetic). Cardiac monitor, 12 lead ECG, CXR, ABG

61

If a patient presents with shock and a raised JVP, what are they likely to have?

Cardiac tamponade.

62

Questions if you suspect heart failure.

Orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspoea and peripheral oedema.

63

What is cardiac catheterisation used for in coronary artery disease?

Diagnostic
Therapeutic (angioplasty, stent insertion)

64

What is cardiac catheterisation used for in valvular disease?

Diagnostic
Therapeutic valvuloplasty

65

What is cardiac catheterisation used for in congenital heart disease?

Diagnostic
Therapeutic - balloon dilatation or septostomy.

66

Pre-procedural checks for cardiac catheterisation

Peripheral pulses, bruits, aneurysms
FBC, U&Es, LFTs, clotting screen, CXR, ECG
Consent for all possibly eventualities
IV access
Nil by mouth for 6 h prior

67

Indications for trans-oesophageal echocardiography

Diagnosing aortic dissection, assessing prosthetic valves, finding cardiac source of emboli

68

Contra-indications for trans-oesophageal echo

Oesophageal disease or cervical spine injury.

69

Uses of echocardiography

Quantification of global LV function, right hear haemodynamics (e.g regurg), congenital heart disease, endocarditis, pericardial effusion and HCM.

70

Causes of angina pectoris

Common: atheroma
Rarely: anaemia, AS, tachyarrhythmias, HCM, arteritis or small vessel disease.

71

Types of angina

Stable, unstable, decubitus and Prinzmetal's.

72

Angina on ECG

Usually normal, can show ST depression, flat or inverted T waves, signs of past MI.

73

Angina management

Lifestyle changes
Aspirin
B-blockers
Nitrates
Long acting calcium antagonists (amlodipine, diltiazem)
Nicorandil

74

Indications for an angina referral

New angina of sudden onset, recurrent if past MI or CABG, uncontrolled by drugs, or unstable.

75

Indications for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

Poor repsonse or intolerance to medial therapy, refractory angina in patients not suitable for CABG, previous CABG, post-thrombolysis if severe stenosis, symptoms or positive stress test.

76

Should PTCA be accompanied by stenting?

Usually yes and with clopidogrel.

77

What investigations should you do with a patient with known CAD and typical pain?

No further investigation needed.

78

What investigations should you do with a patient with known CAD and atypical pain?

Either exercise testing or functional limitation

79

What investigations should you do with a patient with unknown CAD?

Stratify likelihood of CAD.
Low risk - reconsider
Low-middle risk - CT with cororanry artery calcification scor.
Middle risk - functional imaging
High-ish risk angiography
Very high risk, treat as CAD (smoking, diabetic, hyperlipidaemia, over 45).

80

Treatment for Prinzmetal's angina

Calcium channel blockers and long-acting nitrates. Avoid aspiring and B-blockers.

81

Who presents with silent MI?

The elderly and diabetics.

82

How does silent MI normally present?

Syncope, pulmonary oedema, epigastric pain and vomiting, post-operative hypotension, oliguria, confusion, stroke and diabetic hyperglycaemic states.

83

Blood tests for suspected ACS

FBCs, U&Es, glucose, lipids.
Cardiac enzymes - cardiac troponin, creatine kinase, myoglobin.

84

Differentials for ACS

Angina, pericarditis, myocaarditis, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and oesophageal reflux.

85

Management of ACS without ST segment elevation - MANABA(CW)

Admit to CCU
Monitor O2 stats and administer if necessary
Analgesia
Nitrates
Aspirin
B-blocker
Antithrombotic e.g. fondaparinux or LMWH
(Clopidogrel, or if high risk GPIIb/IIIa antagonist e.g. tirofiban. Warfarin)

86

If a patient with ACS comes in, and during monitoring proves to be high risk (rise in trop, changes to ECG, upon history taking), what do you do?

Infuse a GPIIb/IIIa antagonist and refer for angiography

87

If a patient with ACS comes in, and during monitoring proves to be low risk, what do you do?

Discharge if repeat trop is negative. Arrange further investigation.

88

Pre-hospital ACS management

Ambulance, 300mg aspirin chewed, GTN sublingual, analgesia and metoclopramide.

89

Management of ACS with ST elevation. ABACW

Angioplasty or thrombolysis
B-blocker
ACE inhibitor
Clopidogrel
Warfarin

90

What kind of MI is most commonly followed by 1st degree heart block?

An inferior MI.

91

What is Dressler's syndrome?

Recurrent pericarditis, pleural effusions, fever, anaemia and raised ESR post MI.

92

Causes of myocarditis

Idiopathic, viral, bacterial, spirochaetes, protozoa, drugs (herceptin, penicillin, chloramphenicol).

93

Symptoms and signs of myocarditis

Fatigue, dyspnoea, chest pain, fever, palpitations, tachycardia.

94

Associations with dilated cardiomyopathy

Alcohol, increased BP, haemochromatosis. Many others.

95

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - inheritance and presentation.

Autosomal dominant inheritance - commonest cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Can present with angina, dyspnoea, palpitation, syncope

96

Clinical features of pericardial effusion

Dyspnoea, raised JVP, bronchial breathing at left base.

97

Most common type of oesophageal cancer

Adenocarcinoma