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Flashcards in Blood values Deck (21):
1

ABG: PaO2

>10 kPa (75 mmHg) when breathing air.

2

ABG: FiO2

0.21 (on air)

3

ABG: pH

7.35 - 7.45

4

ABG: PaCO2

4.7 - 6.0 kPa (35-45 mmHg)

5

ABG: HCO3

22-26 mmol/L

6

ABG: base excess

-2 to +2

7

How do you determine arterial oxygenation from ABG results?

Look at PaO2

8

How do you determine ventilatory status?

Look at PaCO2

9

How do you determine gas exchange?

Combination of PaO2 and PaCO2

10

How do you evaluate acid-base status?

Evaluate pH, PaCO2 and HCO3

11

What happens when PaCO2 is below 5 kPa and pH is highish?

Respiratory alkalosis

12

What is a normal lactate?

Less than 1.0 mmol/L

13

What does hypercalcaemia, high albumin and high urea suggest?

Dehydration

14

What does high calcium, high albumin and low or normal urea suggest?

a cuffed specimen

15

What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, low phosphate and normal urea suggest?

Primary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

16

What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, normal or high phosphate and high ALP suggest?

Bone mets, sarcoidosis, thryrotoxicosis or lithium.

17

What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, normal or high phosphate and normal ALP suggest?

Myeloma, Vit D deficiency, sarcoidosis.

18

What is hyperkalaemia?

Plasma K+ > 6.5 mmol/L

19

Concerning signs and symptoms in hyperkalaemia

Fast irrregular pulse, chest pain, weakness, palpitations and lightheadedness
ECG: tented T waves, small P waves, wide QRS and vent fib.

20

What artefacts can cause apparent hyperkalaemia?

haemolysis, FBC bottle contaminant, thrombocytaemia, delayed analysis.

21

Give some causes of hyperkalaemia: kidneys, endocrine, iatrogenic, other

Kidney stuff: oliguric renal failure, K+ sparing diuretics.
Endocrine stuff: DM metabolic acidosis, Addison's.
Iatrogenic: given K+, blood transfusion, drugs.
Other: rhabdomyelosis, burns.