Flashcards in Blood values Deck (21):
>10 kPa (75 mmHg) when breathing air.
0.21 (on air)
7.35 - 7.45
4.7 - 6.0 kPa (35-45 mmHg)
ABG: base excess
-2 to +2
How do you determine arterial oxygenation from ABG results?
Look at PaO2
How do you determine ventilatory status?
Look at PaCO2
How do you determine gas exchange?
Combination of PaO2 and PaCO2
How do you evaluate acid-base status?
Evaluate pH, PaCO2 and HCO3
What happens when PaCO2 is below 5 kPa and pH is highish?
What is a normal lactate?
Less than 1.0 mmol/L
What does hypercalcaemia, high albumin and high urea suggest?
What does high calcium, high albumin and low or normal urea suggest?
a cuffed specimen
What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, low phosphate and normal urea suggest?
Primary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism.
What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, normal or high phosphate and high ALP suggest?
Bone mets, sarcoidosis, thryrotoxicosis or lithium.
What does a high calcium, low or normal albumin, normal or high phosphate and normal ALP suggest?
Myeloma, Vit D deficiency, sarcoidosis.
What is hyperkalaemia?
Plasma K+ > 6.5 mmol/L
Concerning signs and symptoms in hyperkalaemia
Fast irrregular pulse, chest pain, weakness, palpitations and lightheadedness
ECG: tented T waves, small P waves, wide QRS and vent fib.
What artefacts can cause apparent hyperkalaemia?
haemolysis, FBC bottle contaminant, thrombocytaemia, delayed analysis.