CPTP 3.15 Drugs used in Inflammation Allergy and Pain 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CPTP 3.15 Drugs used in Inflammation Allergy and Pain 3 Deck (39)
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1

Describe briefly the mechanism of action of corticosteroids

• Binds to cytoplasm receptors
• Complex dimerises with another
• This dimer binds to steroid responsive elements in DNA
• Protein synthesis is either induced or inhibited

2

Why can cortisol not be given as a drug?

What is given instead?

It would be broken down too rapidly

Hydrocortisone is given (cortisol prodrug)

3

What are the effects or glucocorticoids on:
• Carbohydrate metabolism
• Protein metabolism
• Stress
• Endocrine hormones

Carbohydarates:
• Increased gluconeogenesis
• Decreased glucose uptake

Proteins:
• Decreased synthesis and increased catabolism

Stress:
• Raises glucose to provide energy needed to combat stress

Endocrine hormones:
• Feedback inhibition:
> Glucocorticoids
> TSH

4

What are the pharmacologically useful effects of endogenous glucocorticoids?

• Anti-inflammatory action; inhibits both early and late stage reactions
• Decrease immune cells in plasma

5

Describe the early and late stage inflammatory responses (bi-phasic)

Early stage
• Redness
• Pain
• Swelling

Late stage
• Proliferative reactions
• Wound repair

6

How do glucocorticoids bring about their anti-inflammatory effects?

• Upregulates anti-inflammatory proteins
• Downregulates pro-inflammatory proteins
• Inhibits the degranulation of mast cells (so histamine not released)
• Induces annexin lipocortin 1
• Inhibits COX EXPRESSION (thus inhibiting eicosanoids)

This ultimately acts to:
• Reduce vasodilation
• Decreased clonal expansion of T and B cells
ACUTELY:
• Decrease leukocytes in acute inflammation
CHRONICALLY:
• Decrease mononuclear cells
• Reduce fibrosis and blood vessel proliferation

7

Which anti-inflammatory proteins are upregulated by glucocorticoids?

• IκB
Cytokines:
• IL-4
• IL-10
• Transforming growth factor (TGF) Beta

8

What does IκB do?

Inhibits NFκB

9

Which pro-inflammatory proteins are downregulated by glucocorticoids?

• TNF𝛼
• IL-1
• IL-2
• IL-6
• Nitric oxide synthase
• COX-2

10

Which pro-inflammatory protein is the one which stimulates T-cell proliferation?

IL-2

11

What does annexin lipocortin 1 do?

• Inhibits various leukocyte functions (the inflammatory events)
• Inhibits phospholipase A2

12

What effect does glucocorticoids have on prostaglandins?

IMG 10

(By virtue of:
• Upregulates anti-inflammatory proteins
• Downregulates pro-inflammatory proteins
• Induces annexin lipocortin 1
• Inhibits COX EXPRESSION)

13

What is the most rapid effect of glucocorticoids?

The prevention of degranulation of mast cells

14

What is the main adverse effect of long-term glucocorticoids and what is the mechanism for this?

Osteoporosis
• Blocks the induction of the osteocalcin gene, which is a calcium homeostasis gene responsible for building up bones
• Modifies transcription of collagenase gene

15

What is the objective with corticosteroid drugs in terms of targets?

Affect the glucocorticoid system but not the mineralocorticoid system

16

Name the corticosteroid drugs, stating which are short acting, intermediate acting and long acting

SHORT-ACTING
• Hydrocortisone
• Fludrocortisone
INTERMEDIATE-ACTING
• Prednisolone
• Methylprednisolone
LONG-ACTING
• Betamethasone

17

How much more potent are fludrocortisone and betamethasone in comparison to hydrocortisone?

Fludracortisone: 10x

Betamethasone: 25x

18

Which of the corticosteroid drugs is completely glucocorticoid-specific?

Betamethasone

19

Which diseases may require corticosteroid replacement therapy?

Addison's disease
• A disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough corticosteroids

Autoimmune conditions of the adrenal gland

Tumours which suppress corticosteroid release
• Pituitary tumours
• Adrenal tumouts

20

Why are topically applied or inhaled corticosteroids preferable?

To minimise adverse effects

21

In which cases can corticosteroids be used for cancer treatment?

Can be used as chemotherapy for cancers involving over-activation of the immune system
• Leukaemia
• Hodgkin's lymphoma

22

How is the dose of hydrocortisone administered when given orally, and why?

• 2/3 dose given in morning
• 1/3 dose given in evening

This is done to mimic the endogenous biphasic release of cortisol

23

How is hydrocortisone administered? What is each route used for?

Orally
• Replacement therapy
Parenterally
• Severe acute inflammation
Topically
• Any externally visible inflammation (e.g. atopic dermatitis)

24

How is prednisolone administered? What is each route used for?

Orally
• Asthma
• Hypersensitivity

25

What is betamethosone used for?

• Used for autoimmune diseases such as as UC or rheumatoid arthritis

• Used as a last resort for severe asthma

26

Why are other drugs tried before betamethasone?

Lower potency corticosteroids (and doses) must be tried first, to minimise side effects, and then titrate up

27

How are glucocorticoids administered for asthema and COPD?

Inhalation

28

What are the ranks for topical potency of glucocorticoids?

1) Mild
2) Moderately potent
3) Potent
4) Very potent

29

How does the vehicle of delivery alter the potency of topical medication?

Ointments are more potent than creams
• Ointments = oil based
• Creams = water based

30

Describe the elimination of cortisol

• Phase I reduction by 11𝛽 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
• Phase II glucuronide and sulphide conjugation
• Excreted in bile and urine