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Flashcards in Cranial Nerves Deck (48):
1

CN I

Olfactory
Sensory
Special Visceral Afferent

2

CN I Leave and Enter

Nerves leave nasal canal (roof) to enter the anterior cranial fossa through cribriform plate of ethmoid
Enters the limbic lobe
Tract of Cerebral Cortex

3

CN II

Optic
Sensory
Special Somatic Afferent
Rods and Cones are receptors

4

CN II Leave and Enter

Leave the eyeball from Retina to form optic nerve
Enter anterior cranial fossa through optic canal
Specific retinal fibers cross at Chiasm
Tract leads fibers to thalamus
FIbers called radiations lead to the cortex surrounding Calcarine Fissure

5

CN III

Oculomotor
Motor
General Somatic Efferent
General Visceral Efferent

6

CN III - General Somatic Efferent

Motor to extraocular muscles
- Levator palpebrae superioris
- Superior rectus
- Inferior rectus
- Medial rectus
- Inferior oblique

7

CN III - General Visceral Efferent

Parasympathetic Motor
Ciliary Ganglion
Ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae

8

CN III Enters and leaves

Emerges from midbrain from interpeduncular fossa into the middle cranial fossa to enter the superior orbital fissure

9

CN IV

Trochlear
Motor
General Somatic Efferent
Motor to Superior Oblique Muscle

10

CN IV Leaves and Enters

Only cranial nerve to leave brainstem from dorsal aspect
Emerges from midbrain posteriorly
Leaves middle cranial fossa through superior orbital fissure

11

CN V

Trigeminal
Both
General Somatic Afferent
Special Visceral Efferent

12

CN V - General Somatic Afferent

Sensory from face, orbit, nasal, and oral cavities
3 branches arise from pons
Proprioceptive fibers from muscles carried in oculomotor trochlear (IV) Abducens (VI) and Hypoglossal (XII) nerves
Nerve impulses sent to trigeminal nucleus

13

CN V branches enter and leave

Ophthalmic - leaves cranial vault through superior fissure
Maxillary - leaves cranial vault through foramen rotundum
Mandibular - leaves cranial vault through foramen ovale

14

CN V - Special Visceral Efferent

Branchial Motor
Motor to muscles of masstication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid)
Mylohyoid, ant belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini

15

CN VI

Abducens
Motor
General Somatic Efferent - motor to the lateral rectus muscles

16

CN VI - Leaves and enters

Arises near midline of pontomedullary junction
Nucleus is located in the pons
Leaves middle cranial fossa to enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure

17

CN VII

Facial
Both
Special Visceral Efferent
General Visceral Efferent
General Somatic Afferent
Special Visceral Afferent

18

CN VII - Special Visceral Efferent

Motor to muscles of facial expression, stylohyoid, and pot belly of digastic

19

CN VII - General Visceral Efferent

Parasympathetic motor
Pterygopalatine and submandibular ganglia
Lacrimal, nasal, and palatine glands, submandibular and sublingual glands

20

CN VII - General Somatic Afferent

Sensory to external auditory meatus

21

CN VII - Special Visceral Afferent

Taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue

22

CN VII - enters and leaves

Leaves cranial vault through internal auditory meatus
Emerges from the skull via stylomastoid foramen

23

CN VIII

Vestibulocochlear
Sensory
Two main branches arise from the pons
- Vestibular nerve
- Cochlear nerve
Special Somatic Afferent (balance, position, hearing)

24

CN VIII Enters and leaves

ENters the internal auditory meatus to internal ear in petrous portion of temporal bone within posterior cranial fossa

25

CN IX

Glossopharyngeal
Both
Special Visceral Efferent
General Visceral Efferent
General Somatic Afferent
Special Visceral Afferent
General Visceral Afferent

26

CN IX - Special Visceral Effernet

Branchial Motor
Motor to pharyngeal constrictors and stylopharyngeus

27

CN IX - General Visceral Efferent

Parasympathetic motor
Otic ganglion
Parotid gland

28

CN IX - General Somatic Afferent

General sense to post 1/3 of tongue

29

CN IX - Special Visceral Afferent

Taste to post 1/3 of tongue

30

CN IX - General Visceral Afferent

Carotid sinus, body

31

CN IX - leaves and enters

Leaves medulla posterior to olive
Enters jugular foramen to leave posterior cranial fossa

32

CN X

Both
Special Visceral Efferent
General Visceral Efferent
General Somatic Afferent
General Visceral Afferent
Special Visceral Afferent

33

CN X - Special Visceral Efferent

BRanchial Motor
Motor to muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and palatoglossus

34

CN X - General Visceral Efferent

Parasympathetic motor
Ganglia within the walls of the organs it innervates
Thoracic and abdominal viscera through the left colic flexure of the large intestine

35

CN X -General Somatic Afferent

Sensory to external auditory meatus

36

CN X - General Visceral Afferent

Aorta baro and chemoreceptors

37

CN X - Special Visceral Afferent

Taste to epiglottic region

38

CN X leaves and enters

Emerges from medulla behind the olive
Leaves posterior cranial fossa through jugular fossa

39

CN XI

Accessory
Motor
General Somatic Efferent (Trap and SCM)

40

CN XI Leaves and Enters

Arises from upper cervical spinal cord, ascends to enter foramen magnum
Only CN to not come off the brain
Joins CNs IX and X to elave posterior cranial fossa through jugular foramen

41

CN XII

Hypoglossal
Motor
General Somatic Efferent
Motor to all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue (except palatoglossus)

42

CN XII enters and leaves

Arises from medulla, nerves emerge anterior to olive
Leaves posterior cranial fossa through hypoglossal canal

43

Central Connections - Rules of 4

Brainstem origin
12 CN for 3 structures of the brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla)
Utilized for quick localization of stroke symptoms in brainstem

44

Parasympathetics

CN 3, 7, 9, 10

45

Parasympathetics (3)

Sphincter pupillae
Ciliary muscles

46

Parasympathetics (7)

Lacrimal gland
Submandibular and sublingual glands
Nasal and palatine glands

47

Parasympathetic (9)

Parotid gland

48

Parasympathetic (10)

Thoracic and abdominal viscera to left colic flexure of the large intestine