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Anatomy Written 2 > Skull > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skull Deck (50):
1

Foramen

hole

2

Process

protruding structure'

3

Meatus

canal, tunnel, deep grove

4

Squamous

wide, flattened region

5

Fossa

Depression

6

Sinus

chamber

7

Condyle

rounded articular surface

8

Viscero or Splanchno

pertaining to organs

9

Skull is divided into two parts

1. Neurocranium - 8 bones - brain/cranial vault
2. Viscerocranium - 15 bones - rest of facial area

10

Bone Development (prenatal)

1. Enchondral - the cranial base, bones are joined by synchondroses
2. Intramembranous - cranial vault and viscerocranium, bones are joined by sutures

11

Bone Development (postnatal)

Neurocranium bones are separated, but will "grow" closer together
Anterior and Posterior Fontanelles

12

Sutures

Immobile, fibrous joints connecting MOST skull bones formed by intramembranous ossification

13

Name sutures

Sagittal - btw right and left parietals
Coronal - btw frontal and parietals
Squamosal - btw temporal and parietal
Lambdoidal - btw occipital and parietals
Metopic - btw developing right and left frontal bones (obliterates)

14

Clinical Correlation - Sutures

Craniosynostosis - premature fusion of sutures
Results in various skull shapes depending on affected structures

15

Synchondroses

Immobile joints connecting cranial base bones formed by endochondral ossification
!. Sphenooccipital Synchondroses

16

Clinical Correlation - Synchondroses

Achondroplasia - type of dwarfism
Affects endochondral ossification so results in short limb bones and a shortened cranial base because of premature closure of the synchondroses

17

Temporal Mandibular Joint

(TMJ) - only movable joint in skull
Head of mandible (codyle) rides on articular tubercle, not against the mandibular fossa

18

Frontal Bone

Neurocranium
Squamosal and orbital parts

19

Temporal Bone

Neurocranium
Tympanic Part (technically viscerocranium)
Petro=mastoid part
Squamous part

20

Occipital Bone

Neurocranium
Squamous part
Condylar Part
Basilar Part

21

Ethmoid

Part of the neuro and viscercranium

22

Bregma

The point where the sagittal and coronal sutures meet

23

Lambda

The point at the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures

24

Glabella

The most anterior midline point of the frontal boen

25

Nasion

The point of intersection of the nasofrontal suture and the mid-sagittal plane

26

Pterion

The highly variabale area that represents the intersection of the frontal, temporal, sphenoid, and parietal bones
Extremely thin and prone to fracture - damage to the middle meningial artery

27

Vertex

Most superior part of the cranium, typically posterior to bregma

28

Foramen Cecum

Nasal emissary vein to superior sagittal sinus

29

Foramina in Cribriform PLate

Axons of olfactory neurons from CN 1

30

Optic Canal

CN II
Ophthalmic arteries

31

Superior Orbital Fissure

Ophthalmic veins
Branches of ophthalmic CN V1
CN III, IV, VI (oculomotor, trochlear, abducens)
Sympathetic Fibers

32

Inferior Orbital Fissure

Maxillary nerve (CN V2)
Infraorbital vessels

33

Supraorbital Foramen (notch)

Supraorbital nerve and vessels

34

Infraorbital Foramen

Infraorbital nerve and vessles (terminal branches of V2)

35

Foramen Rotundum

Maxillary nerve CN V2

36

Foramen Ovale

Mandibular nerve (V3)
Accessory meningial artery

37

Foramen Spinosum

Middle meningeal artery and vein

38

Foramen Lacerum

In life this is covered by cartilage
Internal carotid artery crosses over the foramen horizontally
Sympathetic fibers and a venous plexus accompany the internal carotid artery

39

Carotid Canal

Internal carotid artery (with surrounding nerve plexus)

40

Internal Acoustic Meatus

Facial CN VII
Vestibulocochlear CN VIII

41

Jugular Foramen

CN IX, CN X, CN XI (glosso, vagus, accessory)
Sigmoid sinus (emptying into internal jugular vein)

42

Condylar Canal

Emissary vein (sigmoid sinus to the vertebral veins)

43

Hypoglossal Canal

CN XII (hypoglossal CN)

44

Foramen Magnum

Medulla oblongata
Vertebral arteries and veins
Accessory CN XI
Anterior and posterior spinal arteries

45

Greater Palatine Foramen

Greater palatine nerve
Descending palatine vessels

46

Lesser Palatine Foramen

Lesser palatine nerves

47

Incisive Foramen

Nasopalatine nerve
Terminal branch of the descending septal artery

48

Stylomastoid Foramen

Facial CN VII

49

Mandibular Foramen/Canal

Inferior alveolar nerve and vessels

50

Mental Foramen

Mental nerve (terminal branch of inferior alveolar nerve)
Mental vessels (terminal branches of inferior alveolar artery and vein)