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Flashcards in Cranial Vault Deck (51):
1

What are the 3 layers of the meninges

Dura mater-thick tough
Arachnoid- delicate
Pia Mater- tender, intimate to brain surface

2

When the pia and arachnoid are referred to together they might be called

Leptomeninges

3

The dura mater might also be referred to as

pachymeninges

4

How many layers does the cranial dura have

2
meningeal layer
periosteal layer

5

What is the meningeal layer of cranial dura continuous with

spinal dura

6

what is the periosteal layer of the cranial dura continuous with

the periosteum of the skull outside the foramen magnum and other foramina

7

Is the periosteal layer of the cranial dura more adhered to the meningeal dura or the skull bones

the meningeal dura, therefore it can be separated from the bone

8

What space is found between the pia and the arachnoid layers

subarachnoid space

9

what fills the subarachnoid space

Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
Also has cerebral vessels suspended in the subarachnoid space

10

what space is between the dura and the bones of the cranial vault

epidural space
only "appears in pathologies

11

what is the space between the dura and the arachnoid

subdural space

12

what are dural folds

expansions of cranial dura that help to separate certain brain areas

13

what does the falx cerebri separate

separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres longitudinally

14

Where does the falx cerebri attach to

anteriorly: crista galli
posteriorly: tentorium cerebelli

15

What does the tentorium cerebelli separate

the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and cerebellum

16

What does the falx cerebelli separate

partially separates the two cerebellar hemispheres

17

what is the diaphrama sella

the dural fold partially covering the hypophyseal fossa and pituitary gland

18

what is histologically significant about the dural venous sinuses

They have no muscles and no valves
They are still lined by endothelium

19

How do the cerebral veins get to the dural sinuses

penetrate the arachnoid, puncture through the dura

20

Where is the Superior Sagittal sinus found

Always in the superior margin of the falx cerebri

21

Where does the superior sagittal sinus drain to

posteriorly to the confluence of sinuses

22

Where is the inferior sagittal sinus found

along the inferior margin of the falx cerebri

23

where does the inferior sagittal sinus drain

into the straight sinus with the great cerebral vein of galen

24

Where is the straight sinus found

lies along the junction of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli

25

Where does the occipital sinus drain to

to confluence of sinuses

26

Where is the confluence of sinuses located

just inferior to the internal occipital protuberance

27

which dural sinuses converge on the confluence of sinuses

superior sagittal
straight
occipital

28

What drains into the transverse sinus and where does the transverse sinus drain to

confluence drains into transverse
transverse drains into sigmoid sinus of respective side

29

What becomes the internal jugular vein

the sigmoid sinus

30

Where is the cavernous sinus located

each side of the sphenoid

31

What does the cavernous sinus receive drainage from

pituitary and also the orbit

32

What structures are associated with the cavernous sinuses

superior petrosal sinuses
inferior petrosal sinuses

33

Where does the superior petrosal sinus drain to

transverse sinus

34

Where does the inferior petrosal sinus drain to

sigmoid sinus

35

What is the anterior meningeal artery formed by

branches of the internal carotid arteries

36

What is the largest meningeal artery

the middle meningeal artery

37

What forms the middle meningeal artery

branch of the maxillary

38

Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the skull

Foramen spinosum

39

What forms the posterior meningeal artery

branches of the vertebral and occipital arteries

40

Where does most of the blood from the meningeal arteries go to

bones of the cranium

41

Is the dura vascularized

relatively avascular since its made of dense regular CT

42

What is the clinical significance of a basilar skull fracture

can damage the meningeal arteries which may lead to blood leaking and becoming an epidural hematoma

43

How do subdural hematomas usually occur

result from damage to the cerebral vein at the junction where veins pass through the subdural space. Caused by acceleration/decelleration injuries

44

What are diploic veins

veins within the medullary cavity of the cranial bones

45

Where do the diploic drain to

Drain into the superficial veins of the scalp and/or dural venous sinuses

46

What are emissary veins

veins that directly connect dural venous sinuses and veins that are outside of the skull

47

What do the meningeal nerves innervate

Dura
Dural vessels (venous sinuses; meningeal arterties)
Cerebral arteries

48

What innervates the dura of the anterior and middle cranial fossae

meningeal branches of the CN5 (trigeminal)

49

What innervates the dura of the posterior fossa

CN10- Vagus
Upper 3 cervical spinal nerves

50

How do the upper 3 cervical spinal nerves innervate the posterior fossa dura

Probably hitchhike with CN7

51

What is the functional role of the meningeal nerves

Pain fibers