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Flashcards in Visceral Nervous System Deck (72):
1

What are the two types groups of neurons in the viseral nervous system

visceral afferent
visceral efferent

2

What type of neuron is a visceral afferent

sensory neuron

3

Where does the visceral afferent neurons carry information from and where does it go

Information is carried viscera to the CNS

4

What types of sensory information does the visceral afferent neurons carry

Pain, Stretch/Distension
Chemo
Baro

5

True/False: information from the visceral structures is specifically localized

False- the information is poorly localized

6

What type of neuron makes up the visceral efferents

Motor (visceromotor) neurons

7

Where is information carried to, and where does the information come from with visceral efferent neurons

Carry information to the viscera, specifically the visceral effector cells

8

What are some locations of visceral effector cells that a visceral efferent neuron might act on

smooth muscle
cardiac muscle
gland cells

9

What forms the Autonomic Nervous System

The visceral efferent neurons acting on visceral effector cells
It is morphologically and physiologically distinct

10

True/False: The ANS operates completely independent of direct voluntary control

False: some aspects can come under voluntary control

11

Is the ANS a motor or sensory control system

Motor-controls the actions of visceral structures

12

What are the characteristics of a Somatic Efferent neuron

There is only one neuron between the CNS and the effector cell
The neuron soma is always in the CNS

13

What are the characteristics of a visceral motor efferent neuron

There are TWO neurons between the CNS and the effector cell
1: preganglionic autonomic neuron
2: postganglionic autonomic neuron
Only the preganlionic soma is in the CNS, the postganglionic is in an autonomic ganglion outside the CNS

14

True/False: There is a physiological and morphological distinction between the divisions of the ANS

True

15

Where is the sympathetic division of the ANS found

T1-L2

16

What is another name for the sympathetic division

Thoracolumbar division of ANS

17

Where is the parasympathetic division found

Exits CNS via certain cranial nerves (3,7,9,10), and spinal nerves (S2,S3,S4)

18

What is another name for the parasympathetic division of the ANS

craniosacral division of the ANS

19

Where are preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies located

Lateral horn of spinal cord gray matter

20

What vertebral levels are the preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies located at

T1-L2

21

Where do the preganglionic sympathetic axons exit the spinal cord

Ventral root/rootlets of spinal cord

22

Which structure do the preganglionic sympathetic axons enter the sympathetic chain

White Rami Communicantes

23

What vertebral levels are white rami communicantes associated with

T1-L2

24

Where are postganglionic sympathetic neuron cell bodies located

paravertebral ganglia-comprise sympathetic chain/trunk
prevertebral ganglia- fairly near the organs

25

What are paravertebral ganglia

A series of ganglia connected by intervening interganglionic nerves

26

What structure do the paired paravertebral ganglia and interganglionic nerves form

The sympathetic trunk

27

Where does the sympathetic trunk run

It extends from the base of the skull to the coccyx

28

How are the chain ganglia usually found

They are usually paired

29

How many cervical ganglia are often found

3-
superior
middle
inferior

30

Where is the superior cervical ganglion usually found

adjacent to the C1-C2 vertebrae level

31

Where is the middle cervical ganglion usually found

TPs of C5-C6
But it is often absent

32

Where is the inferior cervical ganglion usually found

C7 vertebral level

33

What is a common finding with the inferior cervical ganglion

It has often fused with the first thoracic chain ganglion to form the stellate ganglion (cervical-thoracic ganglion)

34

How many thoracic chain ganglia are there

12

35

How many lumbar chain ganglia are there

4

36

How many sacral chain ganglia are there

4

37

What is the Ganglion Impar

an unpaired ganglion found anterior to the coccyx that connects to both sympathetic chains

38

True/False: Chain ganglia have postganglionic sympathetic neuron cell bodies present as well

True: Both are present as the synapse will occur in the chain ganglia

39

Are the postganglionic axons myelinated or unmyelinated

unmyelinated

40

How do the postganglionic leave the sympathetic trunk

-Join spinal nerves via the gray rami communicantes
-Join the nerve plexuses that parallel arteries to the effector cells
-Branch to individual organs

41

How do sympathetics innervate the head and neck structures

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers enter the chain through white rami communicantes of T1-T5 spinal nerves and terminate on postganglionic neurons of the cervical chain ganglia

42

What path does the superior cervical ganglion take and what does it distribute to

Through C1-C3/C4 cervical spinal nerves via gray rami, to the external and internal carotid plexus through cardiac nerves and distributed to thoracic structures

43

What path does the middle cervical ganglion take and what does it distribute to

Through C4-C6 cervical spinal nerves, via gray rami, through cardiac nerves to the thoracic organs

44

What path does the inferior cervical ganglion take and what does it distribute to

Through the C6-C8 cervical spinal nerves via the gray rami through cardiac nerves to the thoracic organs by branches that join with ones from first thoracic ganglion to form vertebral arterial nerve plexus

45

What are prevertebral ganglia

Ganglia that are in front of, or some distance from the vertebral column. They are found near the organs they supply and include postganglionic sympathetic neurons

46

How are the axons of prevertebral ganglia primarily distributed

Via arterial plexuses to effector cells

47

How are the postganglionic neurons innervated

By preganglionic sympathetic neurons that travel through splanchnic nerves to specific ganglia

48

What are the functions of the sympathetic division of the ANS

Vasoconstriction of arteries of skin
increased sweat gland activity
activated arrector pilli
Vasodilation of arteries of skeletal muscle
Dilated pupils
Increase heart rate
Increase arterial blood pressure

49

How many neuronal pathways are in the parasympathetic

2:
Preganglionic parasympathetic
Postganglionic parasympathetic

50

Where are the cell bodies of the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons found

CNS
Brain: neurons exit via CN3, CN7, CN9, CN10
Spinal Cord: Exit via spinal nerves S2, S3, S4

51

Are the axons of the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons myelinated or unmyelinated

Myelinated

52

Where are the cell bodies of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons usually found

usually very near to, or are in the wall of the organ they innervate

53

What are the four paired ganglia of the postgangionic parasympathetic neurons

-ciliary ganglia
-submandibular ganglia
-sphenopalatine ganglia
-Otic ganglia

54

Where does the ciliary ganglia receive preganglionic fibers from

CN3-occulomotor

55

Where does the submandibular ganglia receive preganglionic fibers from

CN 7- facial

56

Where does the sphenopalatine ganglia receive preganglionic fibers from

CN7- Facial

57

Where does the Otic ganglia recieve preganglionic fibers from

CN9- glossopharyngeal

58

What is the Auerbachs (myenteric) plexus

A postganglionic parasympathetic neuron found in the muscularis externa of the GI tract between the longitudinal and circumferential layers of smooth muscle

59

Where is the meissner's (submucosal) plexus found

found in the submucosal layer of the GI tract

60

Where do the preganglionic fibers of the intramural ganglia originate from

CN10 and spinal nerves S2,S3,S4

61

What are the general functions of the parasympathetic nervous system

-decrease heart rate
-decrease arterial blood pressure
-increase secretions of glands of digestion
-increase peristalsis of the gut
-cause constriction of the pupils

62

What is the visceral afferent division of nervous system

sensory division of the visceral nervous system
--->not part of the ANS

63

How many cells provide sensory innervation of visceral structures

A single cell

64

Where are the cell bodies located for the visceral afferent system

ganglia of cranial nerves
CN9
CN10
Dorsal Root Ganglia
T1-L2
S2-S4

65

True/False: Neuronal processes almost always parallel autonomic neuronal processes

True

66

What are the functional types of Visceral afferent fibers

physiological afferents
pain afferents

67

What are the types of physiological afferents

chemoreception
baroreception
stretch

68

Which structures do the physiological visceral afferents parallel

usually parallels parasympathetics

69

Where do the physiological visceral afferents usually enter the CNS

CN9, S2,S3,S4

70

What does the pain visceral afferent usually parallel

sympathetic nervous system

71

Where do the pain visceral afferents usually enter the CNS

spinal nerves T1-L2

72

Which somatic tissues is pain usually referred to when there is visceral pain

Referred to tissues innervated by T1-L2