Flashcards in Crime and Deviance Deck checklist. Deck (35)
What is the social construct of crime? (the definition of crime)
Crime involves ILLEGAL actions. For example, identity theft, murder etc.. Breaks a formal law and can lead to prosecution.
What is meant by a formal method of social control?
How the state controls peoples' behaviour.
What is an agency of formal social control?
Bodies that make the laws enforce them, or punish law breakers.
Give 6 examples of agencies of formal social control?
Legislate, the police, the judiciary, magistrates, prison service and probation service.
What do people have the right to do?
The right to appeal.
What are the two main sources of statistical data on crime?
Official statistics of crime recorded by the police and surveys such as victim surveys and self-report surveys.
What are some disadvantages with police recorded crime statistics?
Inaccurate: undiscovered, unreported (embarrassment), crime in the workplace ignored, police do not report all recorded crime.
Advantages of police-recorded crime?
Can compare trends, shows police where to concentrate resources.
What do interactionalists think about police-recorded crime?
They are a social construct and are an outcome of various decisions.
What do Marxists say about police-recorded crime?
Reflect the nature of a capitalist system. Corporate crime is underrepresented.
What do Feminists say about police-recorded statistics?
Underrepresents violence against women especially sexual violence.
What are victim surveys?
People are asked about their experiences of crime in the last 12 months. Mostly the CSEW.
Advantages of the CSEW?
Counts data that is not recorded on the police statistics, trends in crime can be identified, can help police officers devise tactic's.
Disadvantages of the CSEW?
Doesn't include murder and victimless crimes, respondents forgetting trivial crime, does not question the homeless.
What is a self- report survey?
Asking people about their offending particularly with young people.
Disadvantages of a self- report survey?
Does not question homeless people.
What is Albert Cohens study?
The subcultural theory and delinquent subcultures.
What perspective is Albert Cohen?
What is Albert Cohens subcultural theory?
Juvenile delinquency happens in groups. Schools are based on middle class rules and expectations. They cannot compete and fail to get the qualifications. They experience status frustration so they join delinquent subcultures in order to gain status illegitimately to hit back at the school that branded them as failures.
What are some criticisms of Albert Cohens subcultural theory?
Middle class bias, only focused on boys.
What does the media help to create?
A moral panic.
What is meant by a folk devil?
A threat to societies values and portrayed in stereotypical ways to the media.
What is an example of moral panic?
Mods and Rockers. Rockers cast as folk devil and the newspapers covered in sensationalist headlines.
What is deviancy amplification?
The media portrayal encourages other people to behave in such a way. Evident with the mods and rockers.
How do the police respond to deviancy amplification?
Respond to public outcry and act more harshly.
What are some of the factors that can lead to crime?
Social Class, age, gender and ethnicity.
Why do the crime statistics have an upper/middle class bias?
Because corporate crimes often go undetected and middle class crimes are easier to 'shake off' in a way. Powerful groups go unrecorded.
What does Marx say about white-collar crime?
It is crimes committed by people in relatively high positions. These crimes often happen in the workplace so can go undetected.
What does Marx say about corporate crimes?
Committed by employees on behalf of the company that they work for. For example, environmental factors.