Flashcards in Crime And Punishment-Industrial Deck (49):
What was the crime rate like from 1750-1900
1750-1800 gradual increase
Sharp rise 1815
Slowly rose until 1850
Gradual fall until 1900
What was the most common crime that accounted for as much as 80%
Only ? of crimes involved violence
Britains population grew from 6million to ? from 1750-1900
People moved to the cities for ?
Work in the mills
Name 8 reasons for the increase in crime
Industry and trading goods
Poor lodging houses-theft
Overcrowded streets-difficult to police
Returning soldiers from the Napoleonic war-less jobs in ammunition also
High price of bread
From 1815-1822 wages fell by ?
Who was George Hudson?
In 1840 George Hudson (Railway King) swindled shareholders out of huge sums of money
The growth of businesses created new opportunities for
White collar crime
What did the enlightenment period mean for people?
Philosophers amd scientists began to discuss and change ideas of what it meant to be human.
Lead to human rights
What did the British empire mean for Britain
In 1900 how much of the world did Britain own?
What was the result of railways between cities
Improved transportation of goods and people.
Middle class men invested in trains and earned huge amounts of money
When was the education act?
What did the education act mean for children?
Newspapers could be read
Children could be abused at school
Didnt have to work
Until when could only 5% of people vote?
When could working class men vote?
What did an increase in alcohol consumption mean
When were the Bow Street Runners introduced and what were they
Part time constables of 63 men who patrolled the streets until midnight and formed the Bow street Patrol
When was the metropolitan police created?
How many in London?
Why did people oppose the Police
Invasion of privacy
Further laws lead to police?
Being introduced across the country
What two things happened to trials
Lawyers began to act as prosecution and defendants
They became longer and more formal
What were 4 continuities of law and order
Name 3 continuities of punihsments
What were 6 changes in punishments in the industrial period
New drop- Late 1700
Fewer executions-start of 1800
End of public executions-1868
New drop-late 1800
Prisons became the most important form of punishment
In the 1830s how many people were sent to Australia
When did Transportation end?
Why was there and end to public executions?
Rowdy events which could spark riots
Good place for theft
What did the New Drop involve?
A more humane of way of execution
The convict would be hung by falling through a trap door
Say goodbye to family
When was the goal act
What did the Gaol Act consist of?
JPs visiting Gaols and reporting conditions
How did John Howard reform prisons?
Own cells with bed or hammock
How did Elizabeth Fry reform prisons?
Female wardens for female prisons
What were two systems that were implace in prisons
Separate and silent
Which system was it in which prisoners worker, prayed and reflected on their crime and only left there cell to go to the chapel and to exercise?
What was the silent system?
Prisoners worker together but in silence. The cells were the same as the separate system.
What were the positives and negatives of the separate system?
Positive- everyone was in order so it was easy to control
Negative-mental breakdowns, suicide, despair
What were the positives and negatives of the silent system?
Positives- no longer depressed because they were working together
Negative- the work they did was pointless
The separate system was effective because it was easy to manage, why was the silent better though?
Prisoners mental health improved so when they were released they weren't as negatively impacted
Name 4 new crimes of the Industrial period
1. Faire-dodging and vandalism of new railways
2.stealing water from standpipes
3.failing to send children to school
4.corrupt bankers embezzling money
Name 3 easy targets for robbers caused by economic and social change
Factories supplying goods
Middle class homes full of possession
One view on crime was by 'radical thinkers' what was it?
The poor environment that many children grew up in was the main cause of crime.
They placed emphasis on the lack of religion, education and useful work
What was a view that the middle class had on crime?
Blamed the moral habits of the poor such as drunkenness. A number of people joined the temperance movement.
What harsher view did some people have on crime?
It was a deliberate choice of poor people
Children inherited criminal tendencies from parents
They could be identified physically
Another view on 19thc crime was that publications...
Featuring gruesome details of crime and murders were published. Some campaigners said it was influencing young people
Name the 5 changed in Law enforcement from 1750-1829🏃🏼♀️⚔️📰👮🏻
1749-Bow street Runners-John&Henry Fielding
Late1700s- limitations of policing became clear with rise in population and crime
1773- Hue and cry newspaper is started
1829- Peelers (Metropolitan Police)
Why was the first proper police force set up in 1829?
Growth of towns had made the old law
enforcement system ineffective
People feared a revolution
Gov had become more involved in peoples lives through tax