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Flashcards in Crime And Punishment-Industrial Deck (49):
1

What was the crime rate like from 1750-1900

1750-1800 gradual increase
Sharp rise 1815
Slowly rose until 1850
Gradual fall until 1900

2

What was the most common crime that accounted for as much as 80%

Petty Theft

3

Only ? of crimes involved violence

10%

4

Britains population grew from 6million to ? from 1750-1900

37million

5

People moved to the cities for ?

Work in the mills

6

Name 8 reasons for the increase in crime

Population growth
Industry and trading goods
City growth-assaults
Poor lodging houses-theft
Overcrowded streets-difficult to police
Poverty
Returning soldiers from the Napoleonic war-less jobs in ammunition also
High price of bread

7

From 1815-1822 wages fell by ?

1/3

8

Who was George Hudson?

In 1840 George Hudson (Railway King) swindled shareholders out of huge sums of money

9

The growth of businesses created new opportunities for

White collar crime

10

What did the enlightenment period mean for people?

Philosophers amd scientists began to discuss and change ideas of what it meant to be human.
Lead to human rights

11

What did the British empire mean for Britain

Transportation

12

In 1900 how much of the world did Britain own?

1/5

13

What was the result of railways between cities

Improved transportation of goods and people.
Middle class men invested in trains and earned huge amounts of money

14

When was the education act?

1870

15

What did the education act mean for children?

Newspapers could be read
Children could be abused at school
Didnt have to work

16

Until when could only 5% of people vote?

1832

17

When could working class men vote?

1884

18

What did an increase in alcohol consumption mean

More violence

19

When were the Bow Street Runners introduced and what were they

1749
Part time constables of 63 men who patrolled the streets until midnight and formed the Bow street Patrol

20

When was the metropolitan police created?
Who by?
How many in London?

1829
Robert Peel
3000 men

21

Why did people oppose the Police
4points

The cost
Invasion of privacy
Wouldn't work
Limit freedom

22

Further laws lead to police?

Being introduced across the country

23

What two things happened to trials

Lawyers began to act as prosecution and defendants
They became longer and more formal

24

What were 4 continuities of law and order

Juries
JPs
Assizes
Petty sessions

25

Name 3 continuities of punihsments

Fines
Hanging
Corporal punishments

26

What were 6 changes in punishments in the industrial period

Transportation 1787
New drop- Late 1700
Fewer executions-start of 1800
End of public executions-1868
New drop-late 1800
Prisons became the most important form of punishment

27

In the 1830s how many people were sent to Australia

5000

28

When did Transportation end?

1868

29

Why was there and end to public executions?

Rowdy events which could spark riots
Good place for theft

30

What did the New Drop involve?

A more humane of way of execution
The convict would be hung by falling through a trap door
Say goodbye to family

31

When was the goal act

1832

32

What did the Gaol Act consist of?

JPs visiting Gaols and reporting conditions

33

How did John Howard reform prisons?

Clean water
Own cells with bed or hammock

34

How did Elizabeth Fry reform prisons?

Female wardens for female prisons
Small School

35

What were two systems that were implace in prisons

Separate and silent

36

Which system was it in which prisoners worker, prayed and reflected on their crime and only left there cell to go to the chapel and to exercise?

Seperate

37

What was the silent system?

Prisoners worker together but in silence. The cells were the same as the separate system.

38

What were the positives and negatives of the separate system?

Positive- everyone was in order so it was easy to control
Negative-mental breakdowns, suicide, despair

39

What were the positives and negatives of the silent system?

Positives- no longer depressed because they were working together
Negative- the work they did was pointless

40

The separate system was effective because it was easy to manage, why was the silent better though?

Prisoners mental health improved so when they were released they weren't as negatively impacted

41

Name 4 new crimes of the Industrial period

1. Faire-dodging and vandalism of new railways
2.stealing water from standpipes
3.failing to send children to school
4.corrupt bankers embezzling money

42

Name 3 easy targets for robbers caused by economic and social change

Factories supplying goods
Banks opening
Middle class homes full of possession

43

One view on crime was by 'radical thinkers' what was it?
Lack of?

The poor environment that many children grew up in was the main cause of crime.
They placed emphasis on the lack of religion, education and useful work

44

What was a view that the middle class had on crime?

Blamed the moral habits of the poor such as drunkenness. A number of people joined the temperance movement.

45

What harsher view did some people have on crime?

It was a deliberate choice of poor people
'Criminal class'
Children inherited criminal tendencies from parents
They could be identified physically

46

Another view on 19thc crime was that publications...

Featuring gruesome details of crime and murders were published. Some campaigners said it was influencing young people

47

Name the 5 changed in Law enforcement from 1750-1829🏃🏼‍♀️⚔️📰👮🏻

1749-Bow street Runners-John&Henry Fielding
Late1700s- limitations of policing became clear with rise in population and crime
1773- Hue and cry newspaper is started
1829- Peelers (Metropolitan Police)

48

Why was the first proper police force set up in 1829?

Crime increase
Growth of towns had made the old law
enforcement system ineffective
People feared a revolution
Gov had become more involved in peoples lives through tax

49

In the late 19th Century what two developments were created

Telegraph which sped up communications
Detectives took pictures of crime scenes