Crime Prevention, Punishment and Victimisation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Crime Prevention, Punishment and Victimisation Deck (45):

Who defined situational crime prevention and what is this?

it is concerned with preventing crime in particular locations, it aims to make crime less attractive and more difficult to commit, since crime is motivated by rational choice weighing up costs and benefits, making opportunities for crime more difficult and designing out crime is the solution


Who gives a good example of situational crime prevention and what is this example?

Felson - The Port Authority Bus Terminal was poorly designed in New York and provided opportunities for rough sleeping, drug dealing and other deviance. Re-shaping reduced it, for example large sinks homeless people bathed in were replaced with smaller ones.


How does Chaiken criticise situational crime prevention?

Does not stop crime but displaces it, if crime is rational then target hardening will result in moving where targets are softer. For example the New York subway crackdown led to more crime on the street above


Who argues that situational crime prevent can have positive effects beyond location and who confirmed this with an example?

Felson and Clarke
Bowers found that targeted policing in high crime areas lead to a 'diffusion of benefits'.


Who argues that situational crime prevent can have positive effects beyond location and who confirmed this with an example?

Felson and Clarke
Bowers found that targeted policing in high crime areas lead to a 'diffusion of benefits' with neighboring districts also seeing reductions in crime since people start to see legitimate opportunities as more appealing as they are unsure of the scope of police operations.


Who came up with the broken window theory and what is this?

Wilson and Kelling used the phrase 'broken windows' to describe signs of disorder such as littering and vandalism. Leaving broken windows unrepaired sends a signal that nobody cares. In such neighborhoods there is a lack of formal and informal social control, the police are only concerned with serious crime and respectable members of the community move out it becomes an attractive are to deviance


What do Wilson and Kelling propose is the solution for 'broken window' neighborhoods? And what example do they give?

environmental achievement strategy - any broken window must be repaired immediately otherwise more follows and ares go downhill. They propose zero tolerance policies which means police must tackle even the slightest sign of disorder which prevents serious crime taking root.
The New York Clean Car program where cars were taken out of service if gratited, graffiti was largely removed from the subway and other crack downs in the city led to a 50% drop in homicides and fall in crime rate


What are the arguments against Wilson and Kelling's example of the New York Clean Car program bringing down crime levels?

it could have been that the zero tolerance policy wasn't responsible because at the same time there was a 7000 increase in police officers, the country was coming out of recession and there was a decline of availability of cocaine. Attempted homicides remained high so less death could have been to medical improvements


What is social and community crime prevention



What does social and community crime prevention aim to achieve?

It aims to remove conditions that predispose individuals to crime like poverty and unemployment


Give an example of social and community crime prevention and what were the results of the programme?

Perry pre-school project for disadvantaged black children - an experimental group completed a two year intellectual programme, by the age of 40 they had fewer lifetime arrests for violent crime, property crime and drugs, more had graduated from school and were employed. For ever $1 spent on the programme $17 were saved on welfare and prison.


What did Whyte say about the types of crime



What did Whyte say about the types of crime that social and community prevention targeted in 2001?

Only street crime, disregarding crimes of the powerful


In 2001 how many waste offences and water quality offences did the Environment agency prosecute?

62 and 32


Who argues that police clear up acts are too low to act as deterrent and police spend too little time investigating crime, losing support which means that the flow of information dries up so they rely on military style policing which alienates communities.
They argue the public need to be more involved in deciding policing styles and priorities since 90% of crimes known to police are reported by the public.

Kinsey, Lea and Young


Who argued that one of the major factors between riots in English cities in 2011 was resentment at police, lack of respect from them and innocents being repeatedly stopped and searched.



Who argued tat surveillance is penetrating into more private aspects of people's lives with CCTV which monitors innocents movement to



How many cameras did the 2013 British Security Industry Authority estimate there was across Britain and 1 for every how many people?

5 million
1 for every 13 people


What are the two main justifications for punishment?

Reduction - deterring, re,habilitating for example reforming people with education and removing need/ability to re offend.
Retribution - punishing crimes rather than preventing future crimes, based on the idea that they deserve punishment and society is entitled to take revenge


Who believed that a function of punishment is to uphold social solidarity by expressing society's moral outrage through rituals of order such as public trial. Shared values are reaffirmed and members feel a sense of moral unity.



What does Durkheim say are the two types of justice?

Retributive - produces strong collective conscience through expressive punishment
Restorative - aims to restore society to how it was before the offence, instrumental but still has expressive element expressing society's collective emotions


Which marxist said that in the 18th century punishments such as hanging and transportation where part of the rule of terror over the poor?



Who argues that imprisonment reflects capitalism's means of production; capitalism puts a price on workers times so prisoners do time to pay for their crime, prison and factories both have strict disciplinary styles involving loss of liberty and subordination



What does Foucault say about self surveillance?

Self surveillance works by the way people know they might be being watched so have to behave as if they are being watched. He says in prisons, prisoners are in this way controlled from the inside


How does Goffman criticise Foucault?

He says he exaggerates the extent of control since inmates can resist controls


Why might not New Labour governments view that prison should be used for both petty crime and serious crime be a solution?

Because 2/3 prisoners commit further crimes upon release


Between 1993 and 2005 the number of prisoners grew by how much?



Who said that overcrowding in prisons has led to poor sanitation, barely edible food, clothing shortages and lack of educational and work opportunities ?



In England and Wales how many out of every 100,000 people are in prison and how many in Sweden?



How much of the prison population is female?



Who says that prison soaks up 30-40% of the unemployed making capitalism look more successful



America's war on drugs has led to more prisoners since drug use is so widespread



Who said that growth in community controls like curfews and tagging has cast the net of control over more people and increased range of sanctions enables control to penetrate deeper into society



How do the united nations define victims?

those who have suffered mental, physical or emotional suffering through acts that violate the laws of the state


Who focused on victim proneness by identifying victim characteristics which were mentally subnormal, female, elderly. In a sense some people invite victimisation



What did Wolfgang's study of homicides find?

That 26% of homicides involved victim precipitation which is when the victim triggers the events leading to the homicides for example being the first to use violence


What did Brookman say about Wolfgang's study?

That it shows the importance of the victim-offender relationship and that fact that in homicides it is often chance which person becomes victim


What is the problem with Amirs claim that 1/.. rapes is victim precipitated?

it is not very different than saying they asked for it


What does Walklate say victimisation is caused by?

Structural powerlessness which is where structural factors put certain groups at greater risk


Who says that the state withhold the label of victim from some? Give an example.
They see and ideological function of this failure to label, by concealing the true extent of victimisation it hides crimes of the powerful. In the hierarchy of victimisation the powerless are most likely to be victimised but least likely to be recognised by the state

Tombs and Whyte
where employer's violations of the law leads to workers injuries they are often explained away as the fault of accident prone workers which denies them their victim status and blames them


Who in their study of ..... homeless people found that marginalised groups were more likely to be victimised and by how much?

Newburn and Rock
300 homeless people
12 times more likely to have experienced violence and 1 in 10 had been urinated on


How many homicide victims are male?



How many women and how many men will suffer domestic violence?

1/4 women
1/6 men


What survey found that 60% of the population have not been victims of any crime in the last year but there is repeat victimisation, 4% of the population are responsible for how many crimes in that period?

The british crime survey


Who said that crime may create indirect victims and what did they find about child witnesses of a sniper attack?

they continued to have grief related dreams and altered behaviour a year after