Flashcards in Right And Left Realism And Postmodernist Theories Of Crime Deck (23):
They reject structural/economic factors cause crime as Marxist suggest poverty because .......... Tend to be poor and have a very low crime rate and because crime is the product of.....
Crime is a product of rational choice, inadequate socialisation and biological differences
Lily criticises crime is caused by biological differences by showing that ....
IQ differences account for 3% differences in offending
Who argued that main cause of crime is low intelligence which is biological, but effective socialisation decreases risk since it internalises moral values of right and wrong
Herrnstein and Murray
Who argued crime is the result of the welfare states 'generous revolution' allowing more people to become dependent on the state which has led to decline in marriage and increase in lone parenthood as mothers and children can be welfare dependent but they are ineffective socialisation agents and lack of male role models means boys lack paternal discipline so turn to other delinquent role models and gain status through crime
Who says that the decision to commit crime is based on rational choice, if benefits outweigh costs people will be more likely to offend, currently costs are low hence the increase in crime, the solution is to increase costs like heavier policing increasing risks of being caught
Felson argued for crime to occur there must be three things....
A motivated offender, suitable target and the absence of a capable guardian that would deter offending.
Who argued that it is essential maintain orderly neighbourhoods and prevent crime taking hold, so any sign of deterioration such a vandalism must be dealt with immediately.
Wilson and Kelling
Offenders don't always act rationally and crime can be impulsive and irrational not always bringing gain whose work shows this?
Katz - the seductions of crime
Lyng - edge work
Wilsons zero tolerance policy gives police free rein to discriminate against ethnic minorities or the working class, Becker argues that .......
And Jonas argues that ......
Becker argues labelling may take hold and self-fulfilling prophecies may mean it causes more crime than it avoids.
Jonas argues that right realist policies in USA failed to prevent crime rising
Left realists believe in a real increase in crime since the 1950's. Who argued that this has led to s crisis in explanation for example labelling theory claiming there is no real increase but increase too great to be explained this way
Unskilled workers are ....
Twice as likely to be burgled as other people
Who argued that since living standards have improved crime has also and draws on ........'s concept of relative deprivation which is when someone feels deprived compared to others which leads to crime when people feel resentment and frustration. People more aware of their relative deprivation due to media advertising in a media saturated society (Baudrillard) which raise expectations and creates a bulimic society which is ....................... Media saturated society promotes cultural inclusion - ................... So people feel economically excluded adding their sense of deprivation. Society creates crime by setting cultural goals while denying people the opportunity to achieve them legitimately
Lea and Young
Runciman's concept of relative dep
Bulimic society - when people gorge on media images of expensive consumer lifestyles but have to vomit out their raised expectations which intensifies frustration and can lead to crime.
Cultural inclusion - even the poor have access to media consumerist images
Left realists argue more widespread because relative deprivation more generalised through society
What is relative deprivation downwards?
Where hard working middle class resent the stereotypical underclass for living off underserved state handouts.
Who argued that frustration at exclusion from aspired to life styles means more attracted to edgework which is ?
Edgework is thrill seeking and risk taking behaviour which can lead to crime
Who says that the 'lethal combination is relative deprivation and individualism' concern with the self rather than the group, pursuit of self interest at expense of others leads to crime, also says about ghettos in the USA where there is a full immersion of the American Dream and who does this theory link to?
And links to Merton - American culture puts more emphasis on success at any price than upon doing so legitimately
Who argued that police clear up acts are too low to act as deterrent and police spend too little time investigating crime, losing support so flow of informations does up and rely on military style policing that alienates communities and creates a vicious cycle - the public need to be more involved with deciding policing styles and priorities since .............
Kinsey, Lea and Young
90% of crimes known to the police are reported by the public
What is a multi agency approach to crime
Where multiple agencies are used to tackle it like schools, voluntary victim support and local councils
What does Young propose as solutions to crime?
Structural causes must be addressed - must deal with inequality of opportunity, tackle discrimination, improve housing and provide jobs for everyone
How to Henry and Milovanovic criticise left realism?
It accepts the authorities definition of crime as street crime by working class and ignores crimes of the powerful
How do interactionists criticise left realism?
They rely on quantitative data of victim surveys so they cannot know the motives of crime
Who argues that crime needs reconceptualising as - people using power to show disrespect for and causing harm to others whether illegal or not. They suggest 2 forms of harm which are?
Henry and Milovanovic
Harms of reduction - cause victim immediate loss/injury
Harms of repression - restrict future human development by harms threatening human dignity and respect such as sexual harrassment
Who argues that perpetrators of hate crime derive thrill, pleasure, excitement and escape from everyday routines by inflicting suffering on those who are different to themselves
Kevin and McDevitt