Flashcards in Ethnicity And Crime And Age And Crime Deck (27):
Black people are over represented in prisons, they make up 2.8% of the population and .....% of the prison population
Who found that in the USA .../5 of prisoners are black?
The ministry of justice found that black people were ... times more likely than whites to be stopped and searched and ... times more likely to be in prison
The British crime survey found that crime takes place within ethnic groups rather than between - ...% of crimes where the victim white, at least one white offender
Who found in a self report study similar offending between blacks (43%) and whites (...%)
Graham and Bowling
Sharp and Budd note the 2003 ............ survey found use of class a drugs higher among whites (..%) than blacks (..%)
Offending, crime and justice survey
Who argued that since 1970s has been oppressive policing of minority ethnic communities through mass stop and search operations and police violence, members of the communities are likely to feel over policed and under protected so have limited faith in police, point out officers hold negative stereotypes about ethnic minorities leading to such direct targetting
Phillips and Bowling
Targeting held up by canteen culture that .......... points out is inherent in the police, what does it do?
It encourages racist stereotyping, racist values and mistrust of ethnic minorities
Who argues that police stop more blacks because ethnic minority youths are out at night in inner city areas which are targeted. Areas are disproportionately represented by blacks but they are stopped and searched due to area not ethnicity
What does Fitzgerald argue about police discrimination?
It is at its greatest sin situations where officers can exploit their own racist stereotypes for example by stopping and searching
What act was it and when that allowed the police to stop and search persons and vehicles whether or not they have reasonable suspicion?
Terrorism act of 2000
How many times more likely are Asians stopped under the Terrorist Act of 2000?
The crown prosecution service decides whether a case should be prosecuted in court, they are more likely to drop cases against ethnic minorities, what do bowling and Phillips say about this?
That they are more likely to drop ethnic minority cases because the evidence presented to them by the police is often weaker and based on stereotypes of ethnic minorities as criminals
In 2006 ...% of white defendants were found guilty compared to ...% of blacks and ...% of Asians
60% of whites
52% of blacks
44% of Asians
Who argues that even when factors of seriousness are taken into account, that black men are ...% more likely to receive custodial sentences and were given sentences on average ............... longer than white men
Who argues crime is the product of relative deprivation and marginalisation. Racism has led to marginalisation and economic exclusion of ethnic minorities who face higher poverty and unemployment. Media emphasis on consumerism promotes a sense of relative deprivation by setting materialistic goals that ethnic minorities cannot reach by legitimate means so they form delinquent subcultures especially young black males which produces utilitarian crime to cope with relative deprivation and status frustration produces non-utilitarian crime.
They acknowledge that police racism exists but since ...% of crimes know to the police are reported by the public, police discrimination cannot explain all ethnic differences in statistics
Lea and Young
../.. of adults from Bangladeshi/Pakistani backgrounds were living in....
Low income households in 2011
Who says that higher levels of robbery by black people could be linked to poverty and social exclusion which black communities suffer more from, but it can also generate peer group status and a send of powerful black identity
Bowling and Phillips
Who argues black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes which police act on so more appear in official statistics. Black crime is political resistance to racism, when ethnic minorities found themselves facing racism in Britain they adopted forms of struggle which is criminalised by the state
Who argues that 1st generation immigrants are very law abiding so it's unlikely they passed down forms of struggled to children and also most crime is intra-ethnic so can't be a struggle against racism, he romanticises street crime
Lea and Young
The 2006 ............... survey shows people from a mixed ethnic background had a higher risk (..%) of becoming a victim of crime while whites had (..%)
British crime survey
Who said that you people have always been the most criminal, giving examples of the hooligans in the 1990's, mods and rockers in the 1960's - the young are demonised for antisocial behaviour, drug use and gang culture
What did Cooper and Roe estimate?
That 10-17 year
Olds account for 1/4 of recorded crime
The Edinburgh study of youth transitions and crime found half of the offences committed by 11-15 year olds involved ...
rowdiness and fighting in the street, with the rest being mainly shoplifting, offences they commit usually trivial,
opportunistic and related to peer activities.
Who said that there is a period of status frustration where there is a transition between dependent child and independent adult which weakens their sense of identity and direction, they are in a state of drift where peer groups provide sense of identity, excitement and status and may encourage occasional delinquency, young people use techniques of .......... to suspend normal commitment to conformity, explaining away actions as justifiable
Techniques of neutralisation
What to Katz and Lyng say? Who can it be linked to?
Crime provides pleasures and exciting edgework for youths, the thrills and excitement is more important than the risk of being caught. Peer groups support and encourage such activities and group involvement increases of getting away with it. Particularly appealing to young males as a way of expressing masculinity
Period of frustration usually disappears as they establish independent adult status and are integrated into society as they take on responsibilities (Hirschi)
Messerschmitt - men have to constantly work to achieve masculinity