Crime Rates Flashcards Preview

FOR10001 > Crime Rates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Crime Rates Deck (46):
1

List five sources of objective crime rates.

- Personal experience;
- Police records;
- Court statistics;
- Prison statistics;
- Offender surveys.

2

List three fear of crime theories.

- Cultivation theory;
- Social cognitive model;
- Cognitive theory.

3

List three general sources of bias.

- Input;
- Processing;
- Output.

4

List four general challenges of objective crime rates.

- Definitions of crime vary;
- Accurate recording is difficult;
- Multiple recordings;
- Crime based vs. person based.

5

Personal experience provide what kind of information about crime rates?

An estimate of people's experience of crime during a specified period of time.

6

Police records provide what kind of information about crime rates?

- Crime reports;
- Recorded crimes.

7

Court statistics provide what kind of information about crime rates?

- Number and type of court cases.

8

Prison statistics provide what kind of information about crime rates?

- Number of prisoners and the crimes for which they were sentenced.

9

Offender surveys provide what kind of information about crime rates?

- Number and type of offences committed.

10

What is the purpose of the Australian Standard Offence Classification?

Provides a basis for the standardised collection, analysis and dissemination of offence data within crime and justice departments.

11

In 2009-10, how many offenders were proceeded by against police?
- How many were female?
- How many were male?
- How many were aged between 10 and 19?

375, 259
- 84,072 (23%)
- 291,187 (77%)
- 109,979 (29%)

12

What percentage of investigations into murder are finalised within 30 days of the victim becoming known to police?

74%

13

What percentage of investigations into attempted murder are finalised within 30 days of the victim becoming known to police?

79%

14

What percentage of investigations into unlawful entry with intent are finalised within 30 days of the victim becoming known to police?

11%

15

What percentage of investigations into motor vehicle theft are finalised within 30 days of the victim becoming known to police?

14%

16

What percentage of investigations into other types of theft are finalised within 30 days of the victim becoming known to police?

17%

17

There are how many victims of murder (per 100,000) per year?

1.2

18

There are how many victims of attempted murder (per 100,000) per year?

1.1

19

There are how many victims of sexual assualt (per 100,000) per year?

89

20

There are how many victims of manslaughter (per 100,000) per year?

0.1

21

There are how many victims of kidnapping/abduction (per 100,000) per year?

2.9

22

There are how many victims of blackmail/extortion (per 100,000) per year?

3.1

23

There are how many victims of robbery (per 100,000) per year?

72

24

In 2009-10, there were how many alleged offenders processed by Victorian Police?
- How many were adults?
- How many were juveniles?

170, 614
- 133, 714
- 35, 865

25

In 2009-10, there were how many offences against the person occurred in Victoria?

45, 395

26

In 2009-10, there were how many offences against property occurred in Victoria?

260, 415

27

In 2009-10, there were how many drug offences occurred in Victoria?

14, 583

28

List three characteristics of subjective perceptions of crime.

- Different from actual (subjective) rates;
- Important for a variety of lifestyle decisions;
- Heavily influenced by framing.

29

What does cultivation theory suggest?

That heavy consumption of mass media (4hrs+/day) leads to an unrealistic perception of crime rates and a subsequent level of fear of crime.

30

What does cognitive theory suggest?

That fear of crime is the product of a cognitive calculation of two factors:
- The strength of belief about the likelihood of an event;
- The perceived level of seriousness of experiencing the event.

31

What does the social cognitive model suggest?

That we can an understanding of how people make judgements by examining how they employ a variety of cognitive processes to evaluate social information.

32

What is the computer model that forms the basis of the social cognitive model?

Input --> Processing --> Output

33

What does the social cognitive model assume?

- That the computer model represents the objective (desirable) approach, when the human approach differs.
- That humans are cognitive misers.

34

What is actual human process of the social cognitive model? What parts are subject to bias?

Input (B) --> Processing (B) --> Output (B) --> Judgement --> Behaviour.

35

What is a cognitive miser?

A normal tendency of humans to spend as little cognitive effort as possible on tasks unless provided with adequate opportunity and motivation.

36

List three types of input bias.

- Vividness;
- Negativity;
- Primacy.

37

The input bias of vividness is the tendency to?

Place extra cognitive weight on information that is bizarre, abnormal or dramatic.

38

The input bias of negativity is the tendency to?

Place extra cognitive weight on information that portrays individuals, issues and objects in a less favourable light.

39

The input bias of primacy is the tendency to?

Place extra cognitive weight on earlier information and less on latter information.

40

List three types of processing bias.

- Representative Heuristic;
- Illusory Correlation;
- Framing.

41

The processing bias of representative heuristic is the tendency to?

Employ emotionally evoking stimuli and false beliefs rather than logic and common sense.

42

The processing bias of illusory correlation is the tendency to?

Believe that two events are causally related simply due to the fact that they occur within close proximity.

43

The processing bias of framing is the tendency to?

Be influenced by concentration on a cognitive anchor then framing the decision around that anchor.

44

List two types of output bias.

- Response;
- Functional fixedness.

45

The output bias of response bias is the tendency to?

Behave contrary to one's decision due to social influences.

46

The output bias of functional fixedness is?

The inability to apply a logical decision due to cognitive categorisation one holds about another person.