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Flashcards in Theories of Crime Deck (113):
1

List the three broad classifications of theories of crime.

- Biological; - Sociological/Criminological; - Psychological.

2

List five biological theories of crime.

- Humours; - Phrenology; - Body Types; - Chromosomal Abnormality; - Modern Biological/Neurological.

3

List two sociological/criminological theories of crime.

- Differential association; - Strain.

4

List five psychological theories of crime.

- Psychoanalytic; - Behavioural; - Social learning; - Humanistic; - Cognitive thinking.

5

What is meant by the term 'perspectives on human nature'?

Seeks to determine why people are the way they are.

6

What are the seven elements that are used when looking at perspectives on human nature?

- Nature vs. nurture; - Past vs. present; - Freewill vs. determinism; - Uniqueness vs. universality; - Equilibrium vs. growth; - Good vs. evil; - Rational vs. irrational.

7

What does the question of nature vs. nurture ask?

Are people born the way they are, or do they learn to be who they are?

8

What does the question of past vs. present ask?

Are people more influenced by their past or present experiences?

9

What does the question of freewill vs. determinism ask?

Are people's behaviours the result of the choices they make through free will or are they determined?

10

What does the question of uniqueness vs. universality ask?

Are people unique or are they guided by universal laws of human behaviour and cognition?

11

What does the question of equilibrium vs. growth ask?

Are people able to grow and develop (change) throughout life or do they reach a certain stage and remain there?

12

What does the question of good vs. evil ask?

Are people basically good or evil?

13

What does the question of rational vs. irrational ask?

Are people basically rational or irrational?

14

List two characteristics of biological theories of crime.

- Tend to be deterministic; - Based heavily on the body.

15

What century was the 'humours' theory of crime established?

4th.

16

Who was responsible for the 'humours' theory of crime?

Galen and Hippocrates.

17

What did the 'humours' theory of crime argue?

That personality (including criminal tendencies) were based on an imbalance of fluids, called humours, in the body.

18

List the four types of humours.

- Melancholic: black bile; - Choleric: yellow bile; - Sanguine: blood; - Phlegmatic: phlegm.

19

List the personality characteristics of each type of humour.

- Melancholic: sad and depressive; - Choleric: cranky and easily upset; - Sanguine: changeable and temperamental; - Phlegmatic: inactive and apathetic.

20

Identify what types of crime are associated with each type of humour.

- Choleric: common assualt; - Sanguine: crimes of passion (murder, rape and assualt); - Phlegmatic: fencing of the gods.

21

Identify what season each of the humours are associated with.

- Melancholic: autumn; - Choleric: summer; - Sanguine: spring; - Phlegmatic: winter.

22

Identify what element each of the humours are associated with.

- Melancholic: earth; - Choleric: fire; - Sanguine: air; - Phlegm: water.

23

Identify what organ each of the humours are associated with.

- Melancholic: gall bladder; - Choleric: spleen; - Sanguine: liver; - Phlegm: brains/lungs.

24

In what year was the 'body types' theory of crime established?

1949.

25

Who was responsible for the 'body types' theory of crime?

William Sheldon.

26

List the three types of body types.

- Endomorphic; - Ectomorphic; - Mesomorphic.

27

List the physical characteristics of the endomorphic body type.

- Big; - High body fat/tendency to store fat; - Pear-shaped.

28

List the physical characteristics of the ectomorphic body type.

- Lean; - Long; - Difficulty building muscle.

29

List the physical characteristics of the mesomorphic body type.

- Muscular; - Well built; - High metabolism; - Responsive muscle cells.

30

List the personality characteristics of the endomorphic body type.

- Love of comfort; - Good humoured; - Need for affection.

31

List the personality characteristics of the ectomorphic body type.

- Socially anxious; - Mentally intense; - Emotionally restrained; - Preference for privacy.

32

List the personality characteristics of the mesomorphic body type.

- Adventurous; - Desire for power and dominance; - Love of risk; - Indifferent to what others think.

33

List the criminal likelihood of the endomorphic body type.

- Unlikely.

34

List the criminal likelihood of the ectomorphic body type.

- Non physical crimes; - Crimes motivated by jealousy.

35

List the criminal likelihood of the mesomorphic body type.

- Violent crimes; - Crimes requiring strength and speed.

36

What does the 'body types' theory of crime suggest?

That there are three distinct body types, each of which is related to a personality type.

37

Who was responsible for the 'phrenology' theory of crime?

Franz Joseph Gall.

38

What did the 'phrenology' theory of crime suggest?

That one's personality is reflected by the shape of their skull.

39

In what year was the 'chromosomal abnormality' theory of crime established?

1965.

40

What does the 'differential association' theory of crime suggest?

That individual's can learn to become criminals through association with others who hold criminal beliefs, attitudes and motivations, and that involvement in this group makes it easier for an individual to commit a crime.

41

What does the 'strain' theory of crime suggest?

That crime is a product of individual's with a lower SES experiencing tension due to the fact their their economic situation blocks them from attaining higher goals other than through criminal activity.

42

Who was the founding father of the 'psychoanalytic' theory of crime.

Sigmund Freud.

43

When was the 'psychoanalytic' theory of crime mainstream?

1890-1930.

44

What did Freud suggest?

That our personality is composed of three structures.

45

List the structures that Freud believed comprised our personality.

- Id; - Ego; - Superego.

46

According to Freud, what is the Id?

A personality structure that is entirely unconscious and is concerned only with the gratification of our unconscious instincts.

47

According to Freud, what is the Ego?

A personality structure that is both conscious and unconscious, and which acts a referee between the Id and the Superego.

48

According to Freud, what is the Superego?

A personality structure which is mostly unconscious and which represents the quest for moral perfection.

49

What does the stages of psychosexual development theory suggest?

That our personality is a unique combination of our fixations.

50

List the five stages of psychology sexual development, including their corresponding age range.

- Oral: birth to 2 years; - Anal: 2 to 3 years; - Phallic: 4 to 5 years; - Latency: 6 years to puberty; - Genital: puberty onwards.

51

List the five stages of psychology sexual development, including their corresponding age range.

- Oral: birth to 2 years; - Anal: 2 to 3 years; - Phallic: 4 to 5 years; - Latency: 6 years to puberty; - Genital: puberty onwards.

52

List the characteristics of the oral stage of psychosexual development.

- Emphasis on the mouth (chewing and sucking); - Id is the only personality structure in existence.

53

List the characteristics of the anal stage of psychosexual development.

- Emphasis on the conflict associated with defecation and social rules.

54

List the characteristics of the phallic stage of psychosexual development.

- Emphasis is on the genital area; - Oedipal and Electra complexes; - Superego develops.

55

List a characteristic of the latency stage of psychosexual development.

- Resting period for personality development; - Unconscious instincts lie dormant.

56

List a characteristic of the genital stage of psychosexual development.

- Various fixations are displayed through behaviour.

57

List the two types of behavioural theories of crime.

- Classical conditioning; - Operant conditioning.

58

When were behavioural theories of crime the mainstream school of thought?

1930-1950.

59

What is classical conditioning?

A type of learning in which a conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response which is similar to, but less strong than, the unconditioned response.

60

Draw a diagram of the process involved in classical conditioning.

A image thumb
61

What is an unconditioned stimulus?

An event that automatically triggers a physiological response.

62

What is an unconditioned response?

A natural, unlearned physiological response to a trigger.

63

What is a conditioned stimulus?

A previously neutral event, which after association with the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a physiological response.

64

What is a conditioned response?

The physiological response to the conditioned stimulus.

65

What was Ivan Pavlov responsible for?

Classical conditioning in animals.

66

What was John Watson responsible for?

Creating a psychological explanation for the work of Pavlov.

67

What was B.F Skinner responsible for?

Extending the work of Watson to:

- Complex behaviours;

- Not needing an association with an unconditioned response.

68

List the five steps of the Operant Conditioning Model.

1. Specifically identify the goal;

2. Select the general reinforcement type;

3. Select the specific reinforcement type;

4. Identify the most effective stimulus for the individual;

5. Select the schedule of reinforcement.

69

In step 2 of the operant conditioning model, what are the two options?

- Primary reinforcer;

- Secondary reinforcer.

70

In step 3 of the operant conditioning model, what are the two options?

- Punishment;

- Positive reinforcer.

71

In step 5 of the operant conditioning model, what are the two options?

- Continuous reinforcement;

- Partial reinforcement.

72

What is a primary reinforcer?

A stimulus that is naturally occurring to an individual.

73

What is a secondary reinforcer?

A stimulus that is only reinforcing to an individual through association with a primary reinforcer.

74

What is punishment?

An unpleasant stimulus which, when applied to after a response, decreases the likelihood of reoccurrence of the response.

75

What is a positive reinforcer?

A pleasant stimulus which, when applied after a response, increases the likelihood of reoccurrence of the response.

76

What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is administered following each and every correct response.

77

What is a partial reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is provided on an interval (time) or ratio (number) schedule.

78

List the four types of partial reinforcement schedules.

- Fixed interval;

- Variable interval;

- Fixed ratio;

- Variable ratio.

79

What is a fixed interval reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is administered after a specific amount of time has elapsed following the correct response.

80

What is a variable interval reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is administered after a variable amount of time has elapsed following the correct response.

81

What is a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is administered after a specific number of correct responses have occurred.

82

What is a variable ratio reinforcement schedule?

Where reinforcement is administered after a variable number of responses have occurred.

83

What is recommended variable reinforcement ratio?

1, 3, 7, 1, 8, 3, 2

84

Who was responsible for social learning theory?

Albert Bandura.

85

What did social learning theory suggest?

That humans understand language and have a higher cognitive capacity than other animals, so they may learn through modelling and the use of non-direct reinforcers (threats and punishment).

86

What does modelling suggest?

That the concept of operant conditioning can be applied in humans through seeing others who receive direct reinforcement.

87

What does the concept of threats and promises suggest?

That because humans have language, they can understand the connection between words and potential direct reinforcement.

88

List five characteristics of an effective threat or promise.-

- Limited use;

- Specificity;

- Realism;

- History/reputation;

- Reciprocal impact.

89

List two humanistic theories of crime.

- Self actualisation;

- Hierarchy of needs.

90

When were humanistic theories of crime the mainstream school of thought.

1950-1980.

91

Draw a diagram which explains the Hierarchy of Needs theory.

A image thumb
92

Who is responsible for the cognitive thinking theory of crime.

George Kelly.

93

What does the cognitive thinking theory of crime suggest?

That thinking is the basis for one's personality.

- Suggests that all humans are amateur scientists who are motivated to understand their world through logical and rational thought.

94

What is the fundamental postulate?

States that individuals are capable of interpreting objects and events in their world cognitively and then using this personal understanding to guide their behaviour and better predict the behaviour of others. 

95

96

Indicate where the psychoanalytic theory of crimes lies on each of the factors of perspectives on human nature.

 

- Nature (2)

- Past (1)

- Determinism (5)

- Universality (5)

- Equilibrium (2)

- Evil (7)

- Rational and Irrational (4)

 

97

Indicate where the behavioural theory of crimes lies on each of the factors of perspectives on human nature.

 

- Nurture (7)

- Present (7)

- Determinism (7)

- Universality (6)

- Growth (7)

- Good and Evil (4)

- Rational and irrational (4)

98

Indicate where the humanistic theory of crimes lies on each of the factors of perspectives on human nature.

- Nature and nurture (4)

- Past and present (4)

- Freewill and determinism (4)

- Uniqueness and universality (4)

- Growth (7)

- Good (1)

- Rational and irrational (4)

99

Indicate where the cognitive theory of crimes lies on each of the factors of perspectives on human nature.

- Nurture (6)

- Present (5)

- Freewill and determinism (4)

- Universality (6)

- Growth (6)

- Good and evil (4)

- Irrational (5)

100

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, what is the basis of personality?

How one's unconscious, childhood and psychosexual development combine to determine your psychological make-up and subsequent behaviour.

101

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, what is the cause of criminal behaviour?

A combination of fixations leading to a personality types that is conducive to engaging in offender's behaviour.

102

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, how can the criminal personality be altered?

Through intensive individual therapeutic intervention.

103

According to the behaviourist perspective, what is the basis of personality?

One's behaviours are formed through associations with punishment and reinforcement.

104

According to the behaviourist perspective, what is the cause of criminal behaviour?

Strength of an association between a criminal action as positive reinforcement or punishment.

105

According to the behaviourist perspective, how can the criminal personality be altered?

Through application of the operant conditioning model.

106

According to the humanistic perspective, what is the basis of personality?

The impact that one's level of self-actualisation has on behaviour.

107

According to the humanistic (Rogers) perspective, what is the cause of criminal behaviour?

The path to self-actualisation has been psychologically or physically blocked, leading to an abnormal response.

108

According to the humanistic (Maslow) perspective, what is the cause of criminal behaviour?

Engagement in abnormal behaviours in order to gratify lower level needs.

109

According to the humanistic (Rogers) perspective, how can the criminal personality be altered?

Growth through a relationship with a significant other who is:

- Genuine;

- Accepting;

- Empathetic;

- An active listener.

110

According to the humanistic (Maslow) perspective, how can the criminal personality be altered?

By assisting an individual to identify normal paths for beyond lower-level needs and achieving self-actualisation.

111

According to the cognitive perspective, what is the basis of personality?

The result of our behaviours and mental processes.

112

According to the cognitive perspective, what is the cause of criminal behaviour?

Abnormal mental processes and/or behavioural patterns.

113

According to the cognitive perspective, how can the criminal personality be altered?

By altering mental processes and behavioural patterns through training/learning.