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Flashcards in Theoretical Foundations Deck (55):
1

List and define the two processes that form the basis of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

- Accommodation: the process of creating new schema to allow for the understanding of novel events.
- Assimilation: the process of expanding an existing schema to allow for the inclusion of additional related information.

2

List the four stages of development according to Piaget, including the corresponding age range.

- Sensorimotor (0 to 2 years);
- Preoperational (2 to 7 years);
- Concrete operational (7 to 12 years);
- Formal operational (teenage years).

3

List the two characteristics of the sensorimotor stage of development.

- A lack of object permanence;
- Knowledge is limited to only things that an infant can sense.

4

In the pre-operational stage of development, what is knowledge motivated by?

- Egocentrism;
- The emergence of symbolic representation.

5

In the concrete operational stage of development, what is knowledge motivated by?

- The ability of a child to engage in conservation and parallel processing.

6

In the formal operational stage of development, what is knowledge motivated by?

- The ability of teenagers to engage in abstract reasoning and future perspective.

7

Define the term 'egocentrism'.

The perception that knowledge is only important if it benefits 'me' in some way.

8

Define the term 'symbolic representation'.

The understanding that people and events can be represented in different ways.

9

Define the term 'conservation'.

The ability to understand that things do not change in actuality, even if they appear to.

10

Define the term 'parallel processing'.

The ability to think of several features of something at the same time.

11

Define the term 'abstract reasoning'.

The ability to understand and think about complex issues from numerous perspectives.

12

Define the term 'future perspective'.

The ability to make decisions based on how they might impact one's future.

13

Define the term 'psychology'.

The science of behaviour and mental processes.

14

List the three important debates in psychology.

- Nature vs. Nurture;
- Freewill vs. Determinism;
- Mind vs. Body.

15

What does the nature vs. nurture debate revolve around?

The issue of how people acquire their behaviours and mental processes.

16

What does the freewill vs. determinism debate revolve around?

The issue of whether our behaviours and mental processes are a product of our choice or the unavoidable result of our precursors.

17

What does the mind vs. body debate revolve around?

The issue of establishing the relationship between the mind (cognitive processes) and the body (behaviour).

18

List the four aspects of the mind/body relationship.

- Emergence: attitudes cause behaviours.
- Epiphenomenalism: behaviours cause attitudes.
- Interactionism: behaviours cause attitudes/attitudes cause behaviours.
- Psychophysical Parallelism: behaviours and attitudes are not causally related.

19

In terms of the mind/body relationship, what does emergence suggest?

That the mind controls the body.

20

In terms of the mind/body relationship, what does epiphenomenalism suggest?

That the body controls the mind.

21

In terms of the mind/body relationship, what does interactionism suggest?

That the mind and body both causally affect each other.

22

List the six ethical guidelines in psychology.

- Protection from harm;
- Right to privacy;
- Deception;
- Informed consent;
- Debriefing;
- Social responsibility.

23

List the five steps of the scientific method.

1. Observation;
2. Hypothesis generation;
3. Hypothesis testing;
4. Theory development;
5. Replication and extension.

24

Identify and explain the 1st step of the scientific method.

1. Observation: revolves around noticing some aspect of abnormal human behaviour.

25

Identify and explain the 2nd step of the scientific method.

2. Hypothesis generation: involves producing a formal statement that represents your belief about the cause of the behaviour observed in Step 1.

26

Identify and explain the 3rd step of the scientific method.

3. Hypothesis testing: involves employing non-experimental or experimental methods to test the veracity of the generated hypothesis.

27

Identify and explain the 4th step of the scientific method.

4. Theory development: involves placing the results of the research within a theoretical framework or model in psychology.

28

Identify and explain the 5th step of the scientific method.

5. Replication and extension: involves testing additional hypotheses based on the results of the research and the accompanying theory.

29

Define the term 'law'.

Rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence.

30

List the two types of legal cases.

- Criminal;
- Civil.

31

What is a criminal law case?

Prosecution by the state of an individual who has violated a law.

32

What is a civil law case?

The settlement of a dispute between two parties, one of whom perceives they have been wronged.

33

What is an appellate decision?

A decision, usually made by a higher court, regarding a claim that an individual's constitutional rights were infringed upon during a lower court hearing.

34

List the two elements required to prove guilt under common law.

- Mens rea: guilty mind;
- Actus reus: guilty act.

35

What is meant by the latin phrase 'actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea'?

The act does not make a person guilty unless the mind be also guilty.

36

Translate the following phrase to latin: 'The act does not make a person guilty unless the mind be also guilt'.

Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea.

37

What is meant by the latin term 'stare decisis'?

- Refers to a legal principle of following precedents when deciding a case;
- Suggests that the decisions of a court should follow an example set by prior decisions where situational aspects are similiar.

38

Define the term 'forensic psychology'.

The understanding and production of psychological knowledge that is applicable, in an integrative fashion, to issues of importance to the criminal and civil justice systems.

39

The term 'criminal psychology' is used in which country?

The United Kingdom.

40

The term 'clinical forensic psychology' is used in which country?

Australia.

41

The term 'law and psychology' is used in which country?

United States of America.

42

Define the term 'criminal psychology'.

The application of psychological knowledge to the criminal justice system.

43

Define the term 'clinical forensic psychology'.

The application of clinical psychological knowledge to the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders.

44

Define the term 'law and psychology'.

The use of psychological knowledge to assist with issues of importance to the law.

45

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1789?

The 1st case in Australia citing mental incapacity to stand trial and the use of an expert to speak on the issue occurred (R vs. Gordan).

46

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1843?

The McNaughton rule was established.

47

What is the McNaughton rule?

Criteria used for determining insanity in the British courts:
- Presumes that the defendant is sane and responsible for their criminal actions;
- The defendant must have been suffering from a disease of the mind;
- Asks whether the defendant knew if what they did was wrong.

48

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1854?

A newspaper article from the SMH suggesed that legal cases involving insanity should be a matter for psychologists rather than general practitioners.

49

What two events in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1864?

- The term "alienist" was used to describe a member of the Belgian lunacy commission;
- A newspaper from the Argus (Melb) was the first to mention the need for using forensic psychology as part of the trial process (R vs. Harrison).

50

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1893?

James Cattell of Columbia University conducted the 1st experiment in North America on the psychology of testimony.

51

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1906?

Freud delivered a lecture to a group of Austrian judges suggest that psychology can be applied to the law.

52

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1908?

Hugo Munsterberg published "On the Witness Stand".

53

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1954?

Brown vs. Board of Education (US Supreme Court).

54

What event in the historical timeline of forensic psychology occurred in 1974?

The Law-Psychology program at the University of Nebraska was established.

55

List the four elements of the Daubert criteria, which is used to assess whether expert testimony is admissible.

- Peer reviewed;
- Testable;
- Recognised rate of error;
- Adheres to professional standards.