Crustacea and Insects Part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Crustacea and Insects Part I Deck (73):
0

Name two classes of Crustacea

Pentastomid
Copepod

1

Common name for the pentastomid group found in mammals, and where they are found in their host

Tongueworm
Resp. Tract

2

Defining features of pentastomids

Mouth surrounded by 4 hooks

3

What are the preferred hosts of most genera of the pentastomid class?
What are the exceptions

Respiratory tract of reptiles
Reighardia sternae in lungs of aquatic birds
Linguatula serrata in nasal sinuses of mammals

4

Which pentastomids require an intermediate host?

All except Reighardia (birds affected via direct transmission)
Intermediate host in all cases are vertebrates, except one

5

Differentiate between male and female pentastomatids by size.

Males are much smaller than females

6

Pentastomid life stage when infecting its final host?
Mode of transmission

Larvae
Ingestion of intermediate host

7

How many larvae does each pentastomatid egg hold?

4-5

8

What are the hosts of Raillietiella frenatus

Final host, lizard (gecko)
Intermediate host, cockroach (ingested by geckos)

9

Which pentastomids are found in snake lungs

Kirricephalus/Porocephalus

10

What is the the pentastomid that affects both large snakes and rodents?

Armillifer

11

3 parts of an insect thorax

Prothorax
Mesothorax
Metathorax

12

How many wings do insects have and where do they attach

2 wings attach at mesothorax
4 wings attach at mesothorax and metathorax
Or no wings

13

What is molting and why does it occur (insects).

Casting off the chitinous cuticle to allow growth and metamorphosis

14

How is the exoskeleton adapted to allow for movement

Heavily chitinized areas (plates) are connected by thinner much thinner sections of chitin

15

What type of muscle do insects have

Striated muscle

16

What is another term for molting

Ecdysis

17

Define simple metamorphosis

When all instars (life stages separated by molting events) resemble the adult

18

What are the instars of an animal that undergoes Complex metamorphosis, describe each

Larva (worm-like juvenile)
Pupa (juvenile inside the pupal case undergoing complete reconstruction into the adult form)
Adult (stage that has eclosed from the pupal case)

19

What is the common name for the order Trichoptera and how many wings do they have

Caddisfly
4 wings

20

What is the environment/habitat of the Trichoptera larva

Aquatic in fresh water

21

What is the importance of the caddisfly

Serve as intermediate host for the trematode Vector of Neorickettsia risticii - causes Potomac horse fever (when mature caddisfly is ingested by horse) and Chasta River disease

22

What is the final host of the trematode which carries Neorickettsia risticii

Bat

23

What does Diptera mean

2 wings

24

Name an important group of insects in the order Diptera

Biting flies

25

What are distinguishing features of the wings of Diptera

Second set of wings replaced by halteres (lollipops as Dr. Bowman likes to say) with the main function of maintaining balance

26

What are the suborders of Diptera (with literal translation) and give an example of each

Nematocera (thread horns - meaning long antennae) ex. Mosquito and blackflies
Brachycera (short horns - meaning short antennae) ex. Horseflies and deer flies
Cyclorrhapha (round holes) ex. House fly, tse tse, and bots

27

What type of metamorphosis do insects of the order Diptera undergo

Complete metamorphosis

28

Which Dipterids require a blood meal

Generally only female Nematocera and Brachycera
Both male and female Cyclorrhapha

29

Where do Dipterids tend to undergo development

Nematocera and Brachycera - aquatic environments (except phlebotamine sandflies)
Cyclorrhapha - soil, decaying material or flesh

30

What family do Mosquitos belong to

Culicidae

31

What are some important organisms for which Mosquitos serve as vectors

Fileriid worms: Dirofileria immitis - canine heartworm and Wuchereria bancrofti - cause of human lymphatic filariasis
Plasmodium - cause of malaria in birds, rodents and primates
Viral encephalitides: West Nile Virus, viruses of fowl pox and yellow, dengue and Rift Valley fevers

32

What genus of mosquito is important in spreading human malaria

Anopheles

33

Describe the feeding method of mosquitos

Insert proboscis thought the skin and into a small blood vessel. Part of the proboscis introduces saliva into the host to prevent blood clotting. Another part allow the blood to be sucked up into the mosquito.

34

Where does mosquito larval development occur

In water, preferably still or protected water

35

What are differences in egg laying of the two main groups of mosquitos

Anopheles: eggs laid singly on water with floats on either side
Culicine: laid in groups forming a floating raft on water, or in tree holes or flood plains where eggs can hatch once the water level rises

36

Describe larval development of mosquitos (feeding, # of instars)

Filter feeders
4 larval instars

37

Describe the mosquito pupa

Comma shaped with 2 breathing tubes on each side of the thorax

38

What family do blackflies belong to

Simulidae

39

Describe the blackfly larva and the env. in which they develop.

Have gills, live in fast flowing water

40

How does the female blackfly feed

She is a pool feeder, rasping a small hole in the hosts' flesh and feeding on the tissue juices and blood (does not feed directly from vessel)

41

Scientific name (genus) for biting midges

Culicoides (also called no-see-ums)

42

What suborder of Diptera do culicoides belong to

Nematocera

43

What is one way to control biting midges

Use a fan (they only come out when there is no wind)

44

How do biting midges feed

Pool feeders, like blackflies

45

How are larvae of phlebotamine sandflies different from other Nematocera larvae

Have terrestrial development i.e. rodent tunnels, termite mounds

46

What is the medical importance of phlebotamine sandflies

Leishmaniasis transmitted by their bite

47

What families/groups do Culicoides and phlebotamine sandflies belong to

Ceratopogonidae
Psychodidae

48

What genus do deer flies belong to and when are they most often encountered

Chrysops
Daytime summers

49

What genus do most horse flies belong to

Tabanus

50

Why do only females require a blood meal for Brachycera

Required for egg development

51

Genus and species of house fly

Musca domestica

52

How does house fly eat

Externally digests food then sucks it up

53

Significance of Empusa muscae

Transmit fungal disease - fly lands, spores come out and stick to surface

54

Genus and species of the face fly

Musca autumnalis

55

Medical importance of Musca autumnalis

Feeds on eye and nasal discharge of horses and cattle serving as mechanical vector of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis organisms (pink eye) and biological vectors of Thelazia (eye worms)

56

Genus and species of Australian bush fly
How does it differ from face fly

Musca vetustissima
Likes face of humans in addition to livestock

57

Genus and species of stable fly

Stomoxys calcitrans

58

Where do stable flies lay their eggs

Decaying vegetation (often damp with urine) and animal feces

59

Which sex of stable fly feed on blood meals
Where on the host do they prefer to feed
How often

Both sexes
On legs
1-2 times a day

60

Veterinary importance of stable fly

Biological vector of a nematode parasite of the horse stomach (H. microstoma)

61

Genus and species of the horn fly

Haematobia irritans

62

Where can Haematobia be found (on their host)

On the backs of cattle (on their belly of its raining or extremely sunny)

63

How often do horn flies feed

30-40 x a day

64

What do horn flies serve as vectors for

Stefanofilaria a nematode parasite of cattle and agent of stephanofilariasis - dermatitis on mid ventral region of abdomen

65

What is the genus of the Tse tse

Glossina

66

Where are Tse tse flies found

Only in Africa - fly belt south of the Sahara and north of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe

67

Disease associated with the Tse tse

Trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness)

68

Details of feeding in Tse tse flies

Males and females take blood meals
Fees every 3-5 days

69

Distinguishing features of the tse tse

Has a bayonet
Has meat cleaver veination on wings

70

What is distinct about Glossina reproduction

Does not lay eggs
Egg hatches internally and female gives birth to a 3rd stage larva that is ready to burrow in the soil to pupate

71

How do you differentiate between larvae of different fly species

Look at their spiracles (tse tse have Micky Mouse ear spiracles)

72

How was the tse tse eradicated from Zanzibar

Sterile male release