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Flashcards in Nematodes Part 1 Deck (84):
0

Physical characteristics of nematodes

Covered with a cuticle
Have both a mouth and an anus
High internal body pressure
Typically have males and females

1

What 3 things are classification of animal nematodes based on

Male reproductive organs, shape of the mouth and biology

2

What is the name for a morphology of tubes within tubes

Psuedocoel

3

What are the bursate nematodes of importance in veterinary medicine (and this class)

Trichostrongyloidea
Strongyloidea
Ancylostomatoidea
Metastrongyloidea

4

What do all bursate nematodes have in common

A copulatory bursa at their posterior end

5

Trichostrongyloidea
Hosts (include site)
Mouth shape
Type of Life cycle
Way to diagnose

GI tract of ruminants (and horses)
Small buccal cavity
Direct life cycle
See egg or larva in feces

6

Which group of nematodes can cause the bottle jaw symptom and diarrhea

Trichostrogyloides

7

Which genus of Trichostrongyloidea have larvae that are resistant to both freezing and drying out.

Trichostrongylus

8

Where (anatomically) does the life cycle of Trichostrongylus arrest

In mucosa of host

9

What is hypobiosis

When larvae go to sleep - arrest in development

10

What are animals infected with Trichostrongylus exhibiting watery green diarrhea predisposed to

Fly strike

11

Where is Trichostrongylus axei found

Abomasum of ruminants
Stomach of horses

12

Where is Trichostrongylus culubriformis found within the host

Small intestine

13

What stage larva enters the mucosa of the gut in Trichostrongylus

L3

14

What is the most important bovine parasite in the world? And where in the animal is it found

Ostertagia
In the abomasum

15

What is the complement of Ostertagia (found in cattle) in sheep

Teladorsagia

16

What do Ostertagia and Teladorsagia look like?
Type of life cycle
Where are larvae found

Reddish worms about 1 cm long
Direct life cycle
Larva in gastric glands - can arrest as fourth stage larvae

17

Describe type 1 and type 2 disease in Ostertagia and Teladorsagia

1. Without hypobiosis, usually late summer, early fall, in calves and lambs
2. With hypobiosis, late winter and early spring caused by synchronous emergence, in older animals

18

Clin signs and diagnosis for Ostertagia and Teladorsagia

Moroccan leather appearance of abomasum for diagnosis
Clin signs: watery diarrhea, appetite intact - no digestion - hypoproteinemia

19

Where is Haemonchus (adult) found

Abomasum of cattle and sheep

20

Type of Life cycle of Haemonchus

Direct

21

Characterize 3 forms of disease with Haemonchus infection

Hyperacute - new animals released on heavily contaminated pasture, disease before patience, no eggs seen
Acute - mainly in young animals, hypoproteinemia and submandibular edema, many adults, > 10,000 eggs
Chronic - most common, few worms, few eggs < 2000, unthrifty animal

22

Cooperia
Where is it found anatomically
Signs

Small intestine of ruminants
Not highly pathogenic, diarrhea, anorexia depressed growth

23

What does hyostrongylus cause

Ulcerative gastritis in pigs

24

Where do hyostrongylus larvae develop

On pasture

25

Where are adult Nematodirus found
Associated disease

Small intestine
Destruction of mucosal architecture with diarrhea

26

What is special about Nematodirus

Huge egg
Larva develop in egg shell
Have long spicules

27

Ollulanus tricuspis
Distinguishing characteristic
Where is it found in the host
Clinical presentation
Transmission

Very small Trichostrongyle
Live I stomach of cat
Chronic vomiting
Trans. From cat to cat in vomitus

28

Where do L3 Ollanus tricuspis develop

Third stage larva develop in stomach

29

Scientific name for lung-worm

Dictyocaulus viviparus

30

Hosts of different species of Dictyocaulus

D. Viviparous in cattle
D. Filaria in sheep
D. Arnfieldi in horses

31

Where are adult Dictyocaulus found

Trachea and bronchi
Usually only a problem in calves

32

Life cycle of Dictyocaulus

Female lay eggs, larvae hatch, go up respiratory tree, swallowed, passed in feces... After infection 3rd stage larva migrate to mesenteric Ln to molt to L4 then migrate to lungs

33

Disease in Dictyocaulus

Prepatent disease: bronchitis, possible emphazema
Patent disease: frothy white mucus in airways, parasitic pneumonia (aspirated eggs and larva into alveoli)

34

Morphology of strongyles

Bursate
Large buccal cavity with corona radiate and often large teeth at base

35

Characterize life cycle of large strongyles

Direct
L3 infective by ingestion
L3 resistant to desiccation and temp. extremes

36

Where are strongyes found

Cecum and colon, often in horse

37

Is Strongylus vulgaris a large or small Strongyle

Large

38

Where does L3 Strongylus vulgaris go to molt into L4

Cecum/colon

39

How does L4 Strongylus vulgaris migrate to the intestinal wall

Via blood vessels, arterioles and arteries

40

Where do L4 Strongylus vulgaris molt to immature adults

In nodules in large intestine mucosa

41

Which bursate nematode predisposes horses to aneurysms

Large Strongyle Strongylus vulgaris

42

What the of signs can cranial mesenteric artery derived emboli from migrating Strongylus vulgaris cause

Posterior paresis
Infarction of kidneys
Infarction of intestine
Impaction
Death

43

Strongylus edentatus life cycle

L3 burrow in wall of LIntestime and reach liver via portal veins
Molt to L4 in liver
Migrate through peritoneum back to LI
Molt and penetrate intestinal lumen
PPP 11 months

44

Is Strongylus edentatus a large or small Strongyle

Large.

45

Strongylus equinus
Large or small?
PPP
Disease

Large
9 mo
No natural disease

46

Major differences between large and small Strongyles

PPP much shorter in small
Small are non migratory in the host
They are physically smaller.
Small often do not cause disease even in large numbers

47

Scientific name for shall strongyles

Cyathostominae

48

Associated disease with small strongyles

Diarrhea with emergence of large numbers of larvae from bowel wall in late winter early spring

49

Hosts of the following species:
1. Chabertia ovina
2. Oesophagostomum radiatum
3. Oesophagostomum columbianum
4. Oesophagostomum venulosum
5. Oesophagostomum dentanum

1. Ruminants
2. Cattle
3. And 4. Sheep
5. Pigs

50

Life cycle type of Chabertia and Oesophogostomum

Direct

51

Why are Chabertia and Oesophogostomum called nodular worm

Larvae encyst in SI and LI wall in large nodules

52

Stephanurus dentatus
Host
Site specific location in host
Transmission

Pig
Peri-renal fat
Strongylid egg passed in URINE

53

Life cycle of stephanuris dentatus

Direct or earthworm paratenic host
Larvae migrate in kidney liver peritoneum and muscles
Settle in kidney
PPP 9-16 mo

54

Effects of Stephanurus dentatus on pigs and farmers

Minimal dz - May die if migrate to spinal cord
Losses at slaughter

55

Where is Mammomonogamus laryngeus found

Trachea, larynx, nasal cavity of cattle buffalo goat sheep deer and people

56

Are hookworms bursate or no bursate

Bursate

57

Where do hook worms live

Small intestines

58

Ancyclostoma caninum life cycle

Eggs passed in feces
Larva develop in soil to L3 (infective)
Larva swallowed or skin penetration
With skin penetration larva migrate to lungs, coughed up and swallowed
With ingestion, remain in mucosa until adults

59

Transmission of Ancyclostoma caninum

Transmammary - arrested larvae
Paratenic hosts mice and rodents where larvae arrest.

60

Diseas associated with Ancyclostoma caninum

Peracute diseaae - transmammary infected puppies, anemia, prepatent
Acute dz - older dogs, large number of eggs present, anemia and tarry stool
Chronic dz - asymptomatic

61

Ancyclostoma tubaeforme hosts

Cats

62

How is transmission of Ancyclostoma tubaeforme different from Ancyclostoma caninum

No transmammary transmission

63

Zoonotic hookworm infections

Cutaneous larva migrans - A. Braziliensis usually
Large bowel disease - A. caninum

64

Hookworm species in ruminants and pigs

Bunostonum phlebotomum in cattle
B. Trigonocephalum in sheep and goats transmammary trans. Not important for either
Globocephalus in pigs, may have transmammary trans

65

Group for lungworms
Bursate or not

Metastrongyloidea
Bursate ( reduced in males)

66

Intermediate host for lungworms

Snail

67

Lungworms of pigs
Disease

Matastrongylus apri
Dz usually modest - pneumonia and parasitic bronchitis

68

Metastrongylus apri life cycle

Eggs coughed up and swallowed, contain L1 when passed in feces
Egg eaten by earthworm
Larva develops to L3
Pig eat earthworm and larvae penetrate intestine, enter lymphatic to head to heart then lungs

69

Lungworm of sheep

Protostrongylus

70

Protostrongylus life cycle

Eggs laid in lung, larva hatches
Coughed up and swallowed
Passed in feces
Larva penetrates snail
Host eats snail,while grazing
larva enter lymphatics got to heart then lungs

71

Hair lungworm
Scientific name
Hosts

Muellerius capillaris
in lung parenchyma
Sheep, goats & deer

72

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis found where
Dz

Meningeal worm of white tailed deer, migrate through spinal cord
No diseases in deer, but posterior paralysis in many other species

73

What metastrongyle resides in the lung parenchyma of cats and dogs
Life cycle type
Transmission

Filaroides hirthi
Direct
Larva in sputum or feces

74

Metastrongyle in dog trachea and bronchi
Transmission

Crenosoma vulpis
Ingest snail intermediate host
Also
Oslerus osleri (nodules)
Direct life cycle first stage larva in feces

75

Where is adult Angiostrongylus vasorum found in host

Pulmonary arteries

76

Distinguishable feature of Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae

Kink In tip of tail

77

Life cycle key points of Angiostrongylus vasorum

Snail intermediate host, may have frog and rodent paratenic host

78

Clin signs of Angiostrongylus vasorum

Chronically, progressing pulmonary disease and cardiac failure - depression stunted growth weight loss coughing decreased activity dyspnea edema

79

Cause of canine neural angiostrongylosis
3 grades of disease

Angiostrongylus cantonensis
1. Caudal paresis, ataxia, pain with deep pressure
2. Progressed from 1 inability to stand or urinate
3. Rapid ascending paralysis with extreme hyperalgesia (poor prognosis)

80

Feline lungworm
Where are adults found
Dz
Transmission

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
Bronchioles and alveolar ducts
Bronchopneumonia
Ingest vertebrate paratenic host, rarely eat snail intermediate host
Tx with panacur

81

Troglostrongylus wilsoni
Where is adult found
Life cycle

Bronchi of cat
Indirect life cycle with mollusk intermediate host

82

Oslerus rostratus
Where are adults found
Dz

Lung parenchyma of cats
Chronic bronchitis and peribronchitis

83

Where is Gurltia paralysans found

Spinal cord in cats in Chile