Flashcards in Cult and Culture Deck (25):
religion in the middle east
Religion was not compartmented and followed in a certain way back then.
Religious customs incorporated a religion? – Semitic religion because it comes to race. If they all have a similar culture etc. that means they follow the same religion?
unlike many scholars - Historiography- think what
religion was compartmentalised and followed certain rules
ufism or Tasawwuf (Arabic: تصوف), according some of its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam, yet many also contend that it preceded religion. Practitioners of Sufism (Tasawwuf), referred to as Sufis (ṣūfī) (/ˈsuːfi/; صُوفِيّ), often belong to different ṭuruq or "orders"—congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a Mawla who maintains a direct chain of teachers back to the Prophet Muhammad. These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyahs, khanqahs, or tekke. Sufis strive for ihsan (perfection of worship) as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him; if you can't see Him, surely He sees you." Jalaluddin Rumi stated: "The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr." Sufis regard Prophet Muhammad as the Al-Insān al-Kāmil, which is a concept that describes Muhammad as the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God. Sufis regard Prophet Muhammad as their leader and prime spiritual guide. Sufis also consider themselves to be the true proponents of this pure, original form of Islam.
ulama and sufi
Sufism – mystical – became a routine among general population. Even Ulama joined in the rites
people may have followed the rituals of sufiismbut..
Although people succumbed to Sufism, they did not know the ins and outs of it as a religion. Very few did who practised with Sufi sheikhs. Everyone else had everyday lives to get on with. Much like Ulama who kept religion to themselves.
knowledge and sufism
The knowledge [of Sufism] was the exclusive domain of experts. The notion that it was popular insofar as it was liberally bestowed and easily mastered, would have struck Sufi Shaikh’s as naïve, misinformed and downright pertinent
‘Superstitions are so widely distributed that it is difficult to assign them to any race or creed’
Agrarian – similar traditions, religious habits,
‘placed within these wider boundaries of thought and experience, the living religion of the Ottoman Middle East quickly expands far beyond the narrow sectarian conventions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism alone. It reveals its true scope only in the vast cluster of beliefs customs and attitudes that e can best call ‘agrarian religion’
agrarian thought of as rural superior
HISTORIOGRAPHY AND TWILIGHT OF THE SAINTS
Basically throws out anything preconceptions of the way religion was practised. There was not real separation of religion. All three monotheistic religions were indistinctive as the cultures were so similar and traditions.
WORSHIP AND SAINTS
Worshipped the same saints. Some Christian women were known to worship Muhammed birthday p 178
hey might quote the bible or Qur’an but they worshipped the same saints??
muslim and baptism
Many Muslims carried out baptism as baptism did not make them Christian it was a ritual
Prayer beads – could have been either Muslim or Christian
Veil mainly affluent urban women – only at the turn of the twentieth century did that change.
dress colours of religion
Although the dress colours were supposed to be observed – yellow Jew, blue r black Christian, it didn’t happen. They wore what hey wanted. P181
mosque Umayyad Damascus (was the church of John of Damascene) had a cross inside it.
Main mosque of Beirut had a church with crescent above – put a crescent there, struck by lightening so added a cross beneath it to reflect Muslim supremacy – no more damage to mosque. Nobody noticed the mix of religious
building religious stuff
Help building each others churches and mosques see p 186
james grehan historiography
The book focuses on the people’s lived religion, one characterized by an open and free sharing of beliefs and practices, which often crossed or transcended sectarian boundaries, creating a folk religiosity and a common religious culture that united Muslims, Christians, and Jews as practitioners of what he identifies as “agrarian religion” (p. 14)
1860 lebanon civil war
Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus. It soon spread to the south of the country where the rebellion changed its character, with Druze turning against the Maronite Christians. Around 20,000 Christians were killed by the Druzes and 380 Christian villages and 560 churches destroyed. The Druzes and Muslims also suffered heavy losses.
why did lebanon war break
Early 18 c christians and jews given equal status but christians oreferred trading partners of european powers. A lot of merchants, middle men, traders - more political rights and more economic poower - upset the balance in the levant
historiography rogan tanzimat
1. Subjects didn’t send children to school for fear they would be conscripted.
2. Muslims denounced Tanzimat for introducing un-Islamic innovations into state and society
1856 reform decree established for the first time equality between Christians, Jews and Muslims (these monotheistic faiths were recognized by the Qur’an) in the wake of the Crimean war to stop European powers getting involved in ottoman business. As this violated the Qur’an, which draws clear distinctions between Muslims and other faiths. This together with Jews and Christian Arabs gaining wealthier through European ties caused sectarian violence. Pages 92-3
HISTORIOGRAPHY - ROGAN - TENSION WITH RELIGIOUS GROUPS
Following the Druze (Unitarian, philosophical, takes aspects of Christianity, Judaism, Islam) /Maronite (Christian) fallout in the increase in wealth when Druze returned after the end of Egyptian occupation to find the Maronite’s had got wealthy and taken Druze land https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Lebanon_under_Ottoman_rule#Lebanon_under_Egyptian_Occupation The Druze went on an ethnic cleansing and massacred around 10000 Christians – this caused a stir in Syria where Muslims getting increasingly fed up with Christians seeing themselves on equal pegging.
This led to many Christians fleeing for the ‘safety of Damascus’ however the ottoman governed Ahmed Pasha was said to have increased tensions with the communities because he believed the Christians had got above their station – provoked a riot by parading Muslims for crimes against Christianity, stationed ftanzimaFtanzimacannons by mosques to protect them – exacerbated tensions. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Mishaqa
Riot turned into the continuation of ethnic cleansing from Mount Lebanon – believed the only way to get rid. See page 97 for cost of civil war
HISTORIOGRAPHY - ROGAN - RESULT OF CIVIL WAR
This all turned back on the Ottomans as European powers got involved to stop further bloodshed. Resulting in the ottomans coming down very hard don the Muslims so to see they were doing something and the Europeans might go away. Emptied Muslim houses to provide shelter for Christians, many soldiers executed for participating in riots, set up commissions to give compensation, people hanged .
ROGAN - HISTORIOGRAPHY - WAYS IN WHICH OTTOMAN TRIED TO KEEP EUROPEANS OF BACK
Ottomans realized they needed to invest in things the average subject would be able to see improvements – gas street lighting, electric trams, steam powered ferry boats – almost to make them see something was being done for them Second half of 19 c saw a huge investment p 98 this resulted in ottoman finally being drawn into the global market late 19 c