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Flashcards in Reform projects Deck (37):

When did napoleon invade egypt



What did napoleon bring

The invasion and colonisation of Egypt by Napoleon started the process of Westernisation[2], a process which initiated the decline of the power of ulama. Napoleon began to modernise Egypt in terms of the education system, technology and science. He created secular schools for the first time. This was a process continued by Muhammad Ali upon French withdrawal. Print press.


Who had the monopoly on education



Reforms of Ali

military and schools...
When reforming the military, Ali took partial control of the education system, again following the French model by creating secularised schools; military, medical and veterinary schools, enabling them to turn out men with skills which would benefit his military.[5] This resulted in the ulama losing their total monopoly of the education system.


Ali and the ulama

‘Ali…confiscated much religious endowed property, systematically marginalized the ulama, and divested them of any shred of power. As a result, the ulama, who had experienced modernity as a shocking assault, became even more insular, and closed their minds against the new world that was coming into being in this country’.[6]


how did ali fund the army reform

Moreover, Ali needed to fund the army reform. He introduced a taxation system that took control of the wafq (a charitable trust the ulama controlled and benefitted from financially) under the state. By doing this, the ulama lost a huge amount of wealth and confidence. Karen Armstrong states:


why did ali see the reform of the army as vital

Ali knew he needed to reform the army to keep Egypt safe from ‘the predations of the Europeans’[3] and therefore built his military strength based on the ‘model of the Napoleonic Army’[4]. This is significant as he knew he needed to match their strength to remain free from colonisation.


what resulted in britain colonising

Ali’s successors continued his reform project but, however, bankrupted the country and were in debt to European countries resulting in the occupation of Britain in Egypt from 1882 until 1952. It was this occupation which drove reformers like al-Afghani and his student Abduh to further reform Egypt as one of a return to Islam.


afghani and abduh

Israr Haan, whose work focuses on History and Civilization states:
  ‘al-Afghani and Abduh believed that the only way for the muslim world to throw off the yoke of colonialism and push back against Western cultural hegemony was through a revival of islam… [they] blamed the clerical establishment – the ulama -for the sorry state of muslim society’.[7]
However, I argue that Western society was not entirely rejected by Abduh. Abduh believed that Western influences should be included in reforms such as including the teachings of the sciences in addition to teaching a purer form of Islam dervived from the first umma (community) led by the Prophet Muhammad.[8] This directly contradicted the ulama and, although opposition was created by them, Lord Cromer (the British Consul-General of Egypt) supported Abduh in his reforms and made him Grand Mufti of Egypt, the most senior religious role in office. This depicts how the wishes of the majority of the ulama were disregarded. The relationship between Lord Cromer and Abduh shows Abduh did not reject the West entirely.


mb and ulama

The Muslim Brotherhood was created in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna. As young as thirteen years old, he became involved in the fight against British colonial rule and participated in the Egyptian revolution in 1919. He saw the British reforms in the Egyptian culture as an assault against Islam.[9] Al-Banna detested the secularisation he witnessed within Egypt and he blamed the West for the ‘religious and moral decay in Egyptian society’.[10] Al-Banna was inspired by Abduh and argued for a return to early Islam, however the Muslim Brotherhood discounted the role of the ulama blaming not ‘resisting the occupiers’.[11] The Muslim Brotherhood gained a large following from it’s outset which arguably shows the general public had lost faith in the ulama.


nasser and mb

With the accession of Nasser to power in 1952, the Muslim Brotherhood were clamped down on because Nasser wanted Egypt to be a secular country. The Muslim Brotherhood posed as a threat as they were an increasingly popular political force. At first, Nasser appeared to accommodate the ulama in order to show that he was not resistant to Islam. However, it was Nasser who unleashed the final assault on the ulama. He nationalized the al-Azhar, regarded as Egypt’s highest religious institution, removing any financial control the ulama had left. Moreover, he ‘abolished the sharia courts in order to unify judicial system’.[12] This resulted in excluding the ulama from control of the legal system, education system and wafq all of which had been under control of the ulama before the colonisation of the West.


why did ottoman become more muslim?

Was christian but became more islamic with accession of middle east



Tanzimat reforms due to slow decline of Ottoman Empire? Qualify
1839 – Reform decree – regularly assess taxes, regular conscription and fixed service terms for military, perfect security for life property and honor.
1856 – Corporal punishment curbed and torture abolished / modern banking system
1908 Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was the restoration of the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushering a multi-party politics in two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament by the Young Turks movement. Sultan Abdul Hamid II more than 3 decades earlier in 1876 established the constitutional monarchy, First Constitutional Era, only to last for two years before it was suspended. On 24 July 1908, Sultan Abdul Hamid II capitulated and announced the restoration, which established the Second Constitutional Era.



An Iltizam (Arabic التزام) was a form of tax farm that appeared in the 15th century in the Ottoman Empire. The system began under Mehmed the Conqueror and was abolished during the Tanzimat reforms in 1856.

Iltizams were sold off by the government to wealthy notables, who would then reap up to five times the amount they had paid by taxing the peasants and extracting agricultural production. It was a system that was very profitable and was of great benefit to the Egyptian aristocracy under the Mameluks, and helped create a large and powerful elite. In Egypt it was abolished by Muhammad Ali as part of his centralization efforts in the early nineteenth century.

The holder of an Iltizam was a multazim (Arabic ملتزم).

Iltizam was typically an annual agreement; malikâne, developed as a replacement for Iltizam, was for life.[1]


forced labour

work land as ag reform to raiuse productivity of land resulting in raising taxs.. Peasant not happy. - ali



Religious scholars (singular: alim or ʿālim), title shaykh - mufti: provides non-binding options / advice (fatwa) - qadi:judgeinSharia(Islamic)court
- khatiborimam:mosquepreacher
Played a central role in education, legal system Provided guidance for how to live as a good Muslim Intermediary between state and people (site of protest) see Hatina reading for more details


role of ulama change

No longer central to state and key institutions (reforms)
• -  fewer resources yet increased demand for religious schooling
• -  new schools, legal system
No longer seen as key to social progress
- Ulama seen as backward, ridiculed in the first half of the twentieth century in Egypt
Authority challenged by Islamists ...


what did reforms do re european powers?

End European interference?
Emergence of new social groups (civil education) Shifts in relationships between religious groups Weakened traditional Islamic institutions


social groups

• Emergence of new social groups due to this education system. A sort of europeanised middle class


1860 Mount Lebanon civil war

Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria[2]) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus. It soon spread to the south of the country where the rebellion changed its character, with Druze turning against the Maronite Christians.[3][4] Around 20,000 Christians were killed by the Druzes and 380 Christian villages and 560 churches destroyed. The Druzes and Muslims also suffered heavy losses.[5]


result of civil war mount lebanon

Ottomasn empire heavy crackdown. Wanted to be left alone by franch who were threatenoing to invade,. As a result many sunni muslim noitables executed.


why did civil war break out in part?

Early 18 c christians and jews given equal status but christians oreferred trading partners of european powers. A lot of merchants, middle men, traders - more political rights and more economic poower - upset the balance in the levant


muftis and cardis.

muftis and cardis. Both tell you what islamic text say. Tell you what you can do if allowed under islam As many illiterate and ulasmsa relied upon to help with reading, Thewy would issue a fatwa - an answer to a question.. mufti not legally binding but cardi is.


Muslim Brotherhood, 1928-1952

Used Islam as an ideology to support sociocultural and political change
Founded to combat what founder Hasan al-Banna saw as
excessive westernisation
Incorporated all three types of activities:
• -  wanted Islam incorporated into political system
• -  re-education programme aimed to reintegrate (their
version of) Islam into society and culture
• -  secret unit used violence to support MB in 1940s


reduced power for ulama

fewer resources for religious schooling because of the waqf. yet increased demand as if yu went to religious school you could avoid conscription. As religious school getting stretched and lowest amount of funds. there are a parallel set of schools and legal system. new schools and courts. courts were not dealing with islamic law but making judgements on codified law. ulama sidelined from social development.


political islam

Egypt: Islamic revivalism from 1970s
From 1971, Sadat ended crackdown on Islamists in an attempt to eliminate leftist opposition to his rule
Islamism gradually became a major cultural force, especially within Egyptian universities
Across the region, expression of an Islamic cultural identity became a major way to express discontent for political and socioeconomic conditions
Islamic groups compensated for state failures in social services and education



Egypt: Violent Extremism, 1970/80s
Cooperation between Sadat and Islamists ended in 1977 after peace with Israel
Major crackdown on all Muslim leaders from 1977 in part because of activities of Society of Muslims (al-Takfir wa-l Hijra). They believed:
• -  all other Muslims were infidels (extreme takfir)
• -  live separately (extension of jahiliyya)
Sadat was assassinated in October 1981 by a member of an underground extremist group, Jihad



ǧāhiliyyah/jāhilīyah "ignorance") is an Islamic concept of "ignorance of divine guidance" or "the state of ignorance of the guidance from God"[1] or "Days of Ignorance"[2] referring to the allegedly barbaric condition in which Arabs found themselves in pre-Islamic Arabia (in the non-Islamic sense), i.e. prior to the revelation of the Quran to Muhammad. The root of the term jahiliyyah is the I-form verb jahala'jahil' "to be ignorant or stupid, to act stupidly".[3]

Use of the term for modern Muslim society is usually associated with Qutb's other radical ideas (or Qutbism) – namely that reappearance of Jahiliyya is a result of the lack of Sharia law, without which Islam cannot exist;[10] that true Islam is a complete system with no room for any element of Jahiliyya;[11] that all aspects of Jahiliyya ("manners, ideas and concepts, rules and regulations, values and criteria") are "evil and corrupt"[12]

Medieval Islamic scholar ibn Taymiyyah was probably the first to use the term to describe backsliders in contemporary Muslim society.[6] In the 20th century, Indian Islamist writer Abul Ala Maududi wrote of it.[7] Sayyid Qutb popularized the term in his influential work Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones", with the shocking assertion that "the Muslim community has been extinct for a few centuries."[8]



Al-Afghani (1838/1839 – 9 March 1897), was a political activist and Islamic ideologist in the Muslim world during the late 19th century, particularly in the Middle East, South Asia and Europe. One of the founders of Islamic Modernism[4][5] and an advocate of Pan-Islamic unity,[6] he has been described as being less interested in minor differences in Islamic jurisprudence than he was in organizing a Muslim response to Western pressure.[7]



Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, Arabic: محمد عبده‎) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu'tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Mu'tazila.[6] He broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma, and family ties. He also wrote, among other things, "Treatise on the Oneness of God", and a commentary on the Qur'an.[1] Abduh was a Freemason[7] and had a close relationship with the Bahá'í Faith.[8]



Al-Azhar saw a change in status for the ulama. Due to a new string of intelligentsia pg. 32 protesting for social and political reforms, the ulama appeared to be overlooked as a strong voice. Press in latter half of 19 c saw a further decline in status for the ulama as the ability to achieve printed sacred texts through the press meant no need to rely on the ulama.



1. Subjects didn’t send children to school for fear they would be conscripted.
2. Muslims denounced Tanzimat for introducing un-Islamic innovations into state and society
1856 reform decree established for the first time equality between Christians, Jews and Muslims (these monotheistic faiths were recognized by the Qur’an) in the wake of the Crimean war to stop European powers getting involved in ottoman business. As this violated the Qur’an, which draws clear distinctions between Muslims and other faiths. This together with Jews and Christian Arabs gaining wealthier through European ties caused sectarian violence. Pages 92-3



Following the Druze (Unitarian, philosophical, takes aspects of Christianity, Judaism, Islam) /Maronite (Christian) fallout in the increase in wealth when Druze returned after the end of Egyptian occupation to find the Maronite’s had got wealthy and taken Druze land The Druze went on an ethnic cleansing and massacred around 10000 Christians – this caused a stir in Syria where Muslims getting increasingly fed up with Christians seeing themselves on equal pegging.
This led to many Christians fleeing for the ‘safety of Damascus’ however the ottoman governed Ahmed Pasha was said to have increased tensions with the communities because he believed the Christians had got above their station – provoked a riot by parading Muslims for crimes against Christianity, stationed ftanzimaFtanzimacannons by mosques to protect them – exacerbated tensions.
Riot turned into the continuation of ethnic cleansing from Mount Lebanon – believed the only way to get rid. See page 97 for cost of civil war



This all turned back on the Ottomans as European powers got involved to stop further bloodshed. Resulting in the ottomans coming down very hard don the Muslims so to see they were doing something and the Europeans might go away. Emptied Muslim houses to provide shelter for Christians, many soldiers executed for participating in riots, set up commissions to give compensation, people hanged .



Ottomans realized they needed to invest in things the average subject would be able to see improvements – gas street lighting, electric trams, steam powered ferry boats – almost to make them see something was being done for them Second half of 19 c saw a huge investment p 98 this resulted in ottoman finally being drawn into the global market late 19 c



‘Weakening of Middle Eastern governments, increasing their vulnerability to European intervention’s 103



"Drawing on a wide range of secondary and primary sources in Arabic, the author presents a detailed account of Egypt's ulama. Contrary to the standard scholarly view, which presents the ulama as quietly succumbing to the forces of modernization, the author demonstrates that the clerics reacted in complex and diverse ways. In so doing, he provides the ulama with agency, turning them into historical actors who shaped their fate at a crucial juncture in modern Middle East history. The book fills a major gap in the academic literature."—John Calvert, Creighton University