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Intro to Anthro, Soc., and Psych. > Cultural Anthropology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cultural Anthropology Deck (22)
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1

Rites of Passage are events that:

mark important transitional periods in a person's life.

2

How many types of cultural anthropology are there?

5

3

List the five types of cultural anthropology.

- Anthropological linguistics
- Applied anthropology
- Archaeology
- Ethnology
- Ethnography

4

What are the warning signs of a cultural collapse? [4]

- Human impacts on the environment (wasted resources, deforestation, eroded soil)
- Climate change
- Relations with neighbours
- Political, economic, and social instability

5

Who would study different cultures from around the world?

Cultural anthropologists

6

Ethnocentrism is...

...the tendency to judge another cultural by your own cultural values.

7

Name important aspects of an agricultural culture.

- Had an assured food supply and a higher population, so not everyone had to be involved with food production.
- Began to see a divide in social classes
- New living arrangements, occupations, and social institutions began to appear.
- Kinship is no longer the sole basis for social ties.
- Social bonds form between those working in the same occupation, which allows for further advancement.

8

Name the three layers of culture.

- Body of culture: shared language, tradition, and beliefs.
- Sub-culture: complex diverse societies in which people have come from different parts of the world who retain their original traditions, but are part of an identifiable sub-culture.
Cultural universals: Learned behavioural patterns shared by everyone.

9

What is the basis for cultural relativism?

Cultural anthropologists can't compare two cultures because each has its own internal rules that must be accepted.

10

Cultural relativism was developed in a response to...

...ethnocentrism.

11

What is the Functional Theory of cultural anthropology?

- Every action, belief, or relationship in culture functions to meet the needs of individuals

12

What is cultural materialism in cultural anthropology?

- Materials or conditions within an environment influence how a culture develops.

13

What are the three structure within the path of materialism school of thought in cultural anthropology?

- Infastructure: material resources
- Structure: society's family, political, economic, and social systems.
- Superstructure: society's ideas, values, symbols, and religion.

14

What is the feminist anthropology school of thought in cultural anthropology?

- Studied cultures dominated by men, women, egalitarian
- Determine gender roles, debunk gender myths, and show how gender, race, class, ethnicity, and sexual orientation is constructed.

15

What is the postmodernism school of thought in cultural anthropology?

- It's impossible to have any true knowledge of the world
- Reject the idea of subjective truth, deconstruct what a society believes to be true.

16

What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?

The belief that culture can't exist without language, and that language is the key component of all culture.

17

What are the main characteristics of Hunter-Gatherer cultures? [4]

- Hunting and gathering
- Nomadic by nature, as they follow their food source
- Made up of small family units, as it makes decision making and travel easier.
- Decision process is largely informal, based off the suggestions of elders.

18

What are the main characteristics of Pastoral cultures? [5]

- People were nomadic, travelling with herds of domesticated animals to greener pastures.
- Further stabilized food source, the population grew, decision-making became more complex, and trade and bartering began.

19

What are the main characteristics of Horticulture cultures? [4]

- Areas with lots of plants domesticated plants and by returning to the same campsite every year, they noticed which plants were growing and where.
- Characterized by slash and burn cultivation, start to see humans manipulating environments to suit their own needs.
- More complex decision-making, decisions, and cultural norms.

20

What are the main characteristics of Agricultural cultures? [5]

- Continuously working the land through irrigation, fertilizer, and non-human energy
- Not everyone had to be involved in food production, population exploded.
- Dominant culture until the industrial revolution 1000 years later.
- Increased population led to more conflict and more complex decision-making.
- Start to see rise of class differences and occupations.

21

What are the main characteristics of Industrialized cultures?

- Shift in focus from the production of food to the production of goods
- Sees the rise in urbanization
- Massive movement of people to cities make jobs scarce, and lots of poverty and social problems.
- Creates more complex social structures, reinforced class structures, and has mass environmental degradation (pollution).

22

List the three common threads that run through all cultural collapses.

- The rapidity at which the collapse occurs after the peak (rapidity of collapse is linked to resource supply and consumption).
- There are many subtle environmental factors of a given place that make it more susceptible to collapse
- We tend not to see what we're doing until it's too late (conflicts of interest between short term interests of elite and long term interests of society).