Flashcards in Introduction Deck (23)
What is the goal of social scientists?
To explain and understand human behaviour.
What are the two main fields within anthropology?
Physical and cultural anthropology.
What is physical anthropology?
The study of human as a species (evolution, primitive ancestors, primates).
What is cultural anthropology?
The study of the development of human culture (development over time, survival in environment, indigenous cultures).
What is sociology?
The study of people in groups, what impacts behaviour of people in groups.
What is psychology?
The study of human behaviour and mental processes to make humans healthier and to help people.
What are the two mains fields within psychology?
Clinical psychology and psychiatry.
What is clinical psychology?
Research and experiments.
What is psychiatry? Why can it be challenging?
Changing unhealthy behaviour, improving mental health issues, which takes knowledge from clinical psychology. It's hard because mental illness looks different in everyone and can't be treated the same.
What does observing human behaviour allow us to do?
Apply order to chaos, and to know what to expect. People desire order and stability, and expect people to behave in an unspoken agreement.
What is the Scientific Method?
Purpose (question), hypothesis (inference on outcome of experiment), research, repeated tests, analyze your results, draw your conclusions.
What is the purpose of the Scientific Method?
So your findings and process can be reproduced.
What are the five research methods?
Experiments, survey, observation, primary and secondary analysis, and interview.
Explain experiments as a research method. 
Requires the controlled testing of one variable, made difficult due to modern ethics, control groups test variables to determine cause and effect.
Explain surveys as a research method. 
They are quick, easy to conduct, cheap, have a potential for falsehood, too many variables, open to bias, open for statistical manipulation, and can be difficult to properly construct.
Explain observation as a research method. 
Unstructured observation can lead to meaningful questions, structured observation is one with a specific question in mind, participant observation is when observer goes and lives with the observed which leads to a deeper understanding.)
Explain primary and secondary analysis as a research method. 
Primary-analyze research and evidence. secondary
-when you rely on someone else's primary analysis.
Explain interviews as a research method. 
Good if you want to find in-depth knowledge about subject's experience, can allow for raw generalizations, time-consuming.
What are three characteristics of a good research question?
Specific, unbiased, and not open to interpretation.
Name and describe the two types of studies one can conduct.
Descriptive studies (provide background information on a topic, used to develop a hypothesis for further research), Analytical studies (look into the causes of behaviour and why).
What are ethics?
The moral guidelines that shape our behaviour, and in social sciences, guidelines that experiments must follow to be deemed ethically responsible.
What are the five ethical guidelines that the American Psychology Association has set out for experiments?
1. Take steps to ensure that the participants are safe from short and long-term harm and discomfort. 2. Participants must know what they're participating in and the nature of the experiment (if subterfuge is needed, participants must be warned beforehand and told afterwards). 3. Participants are allowed to leave at any point. 4. Participants must be informed about anything that could cause second thoughts. 5. All responsibilities are made clear before the experiment can begin.