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Flashcards in CV I Deck (54):
0

Outline the blood vessel names from heart back to heart

heart .. artery .. arteriole .. capillary .. venule .. vein .. heart

2

outline the layers of a blood vessel starting at the lumen

tunica intima (endothelial cells) .. internal elastic lamina .. tunica media .. external elastic lamina .. tunica adventitia

not all blood vessels have all these stxs

3

tunica intima is composed of two things for veins and three for arteries/arterioles. what are they

endothelium
loose CT
internal elastic membrane (artery)

4

tunica media is composed of circullary arranged smooth muscle cells, what is it's function?

controls lumen diameter thus controlling blood pressure

5

_____ ______ are fenestrated sheets that can be interspersed in tunica media and

elastic laminae

6

what is tunica adventitia/externa composed of? (3)

loose CT
vaso vasorum in large vessels
fine autonomic nerves

7

arteries: what makes internal elastic membrane and what is it's composition?

smooth muscle cells

perforated membranous elastin

8

how many layers of smooth muscle must there be for a vessel to be an artery

5

9

what type of connective tissue is in arteriole tunica media?

collagen III
elastic membranes

10

what are the two types of arteries?

elastic arteries
muscle arteries

11

what is the function of elastic arteries

protect smaller vessels and give continuous flow

12

what is abundant in elastic arteries?

elastic laminae in tunica media

13

what is the main function of smooth muscle in elastic arteries?

synthesize elastin

14

how is tunica media arranged in muscular arteries and does it have elastic membrane?

spirally

has an internal and an external elastic membrane

15

what is the function of muscular arteries

smooth muscle contraction regulates diameter and controls blood pressure and blood distribution

16

how many layers of smooth muscle are in arterioles

1-4

17

do arterioles have elastic membrane?

no external
sometimes internal

18

what is the function of arterioles?

control blood flow to capillary beds via smooth muscle precapillary sphincters

principle source of peripheral resistance

19

what happens at capillaries?

exchange of substances between blood and ECM

20

capillary structure?

one layer - tunica intima
(endothelium and basement membrane)

21

what are the three types of blood capillaries?

continuous
fenestrated
discontinuous

22

structure of continuous capillaries?

tight junctions between endothelial cells

23

where are continuous capillaries found?

blood/brain barrier
muscle (maintain electrolyte balance)
skin (pathogens)

24

structure of fenestrated capillaries

tight junctions but holes in basal and luminal plasmalemmas join

holes can have diaphragm

25

where are fenestrated capillaries found?

intestinal villi
kidneys
choroid plexus
liver
endocrine glands

26

discontinuous capillaries are called what in liver, spleen, and bone marrow?

sinusoids

27

structure of discontinuous capillaries

lack junctional complexes and basement membranes

often thicker and twisted to slow blood flow for Ag removal

big enough gaps for RBC to leave circulation

28

what is the function of lympathic capillaries?

return lymphocytes and protein to blood after filtering Ag at lymph nodes

29

structure of lymphatic capillaries?

similar to discontinuous blood capillaries
valves prevent backflow

30

organization of lymphatic capillaries?

intermingled with blood capillaries

combine to form large lymph vessel that drain into lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
that return fluid to blood

31

how do you distinguish between venule and capillary?

diameter of venule > 10 micrometers (RBC = 8)

32

structure of venules

single cell layer

33

how does structure of venule change as diameter increases

smooth muscle, fibroblasts begin to appear outside endothelium

34

structure of veins

three layers (tunica intima, media, adventitia)
valves keep blood moving back to heart

35

do veins have internal elastic membrane?

NO

36

how many layers of smooth muscle in veins?

1-2

37

what helps propel blood flow in veins?

skeletal muscle contraction

38

what is arteriovenous anastomoses (AV shunt)

links arteries to veins or arterioles to venules

bypasses capillaries

39

what is the purpose of AV shunts

regulate surface temperature at soles, palms, fingertips, nose, lips, erectile tissue

40

when AV shunt is close, what is consequence

inc. heat loss, blood goes to capillary bed

41

when AV shunt is open, what is consequence

decrease heat loss, blood doesn't go to capillary bed

42

compare and contrast size, structure of veins and arteries

lumen of vein larger than accompanying artery

internal elastic lamina in arterial vessels

tunica media thickest layer in arteries, tunica adventitia thickest layer in veins

only veins have valves

43

what are five mechanisms of transport across endothelial cells?

diffusion
pinocytosis, transcytosis
fenestrae
paracellular pathway
endothelial discontinuities

44

what compound increases leakiness of junctional complex?

histamine

45

what is angiogenesis

development of new blood vessel from existing vessel

46

what do new blood vessels emerge as and what are they made from?

capillaries from small venules or other capillaries

47

what are the five steps in angiogenesis

1. endothelial cells enzymatically dissolve basal lamina
2. cell migration toward growth factors, leading to edge ruffles, contact maintained w/ cells behind
3. migration and alignment of endothelial cells to form solid sprout
4. endothelial cells proliferate and sprout forms lumen
5. cells make contact w/ another angiogenic sprout or existing vessel

48

what is collateral circulation?

more than one way to deliver blood to some part of the body

49

how is angiogenesis related to collateral circulation?

angiogenesis allows for collateral circulation

50

what are two main arterial diseases?

hypertension
atherosclerosis

51

what is the main contributor to hypertension?

peripheral resistance dictated by tunica media tone of arterioloes

52

how does atherosclerosis happen in general

endothelial damage leads to thickening of the tunica intima and obstruction of lumen

53

what three events lead to tunica intima thickening in atherosclerosis

1. monocytes and LDL enter tunica intima
2. smooth muscle may migrate to intima
3. cytokines and growth factors stimulate smooth muscle and macrophage
proliferation

54

what three problems occur in athersclerosis?

1. clot develops within plaque, rapid proliferation, obstruction
2. necrotic plaqu embolizes causing obstruction at another site
3. wall becomes weaker, forming aneurysm, then rupture