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Flashcards in CV readings Deck (71)
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1

Patients with shock had inadequate ____ _____and there is a lack of _______ delivery to major ______

tissue perfusion ; oxygen; organ

2

Shock must be treated immediately to prevent _________ or ________

multisystem organ failure; death

3

The components of blood pressure are _______and _______

Cardiac output; Systemic vascular Resistance

4

Patients with shock will have either an inadequate ____________ or a low _____ due to arterial vaso_______

Cardiac index; SVR; dilation

5

Shock is classified as : ________,________,_______,_______

Hypovolemic, Cardiogenic, extra-cardiac obstructive, distributive

6

Hypovolemic shock is a result of _______ preload secondary to _______ and _________

decreased; dehydration ; hemorrhage

7

Cardiogenic shock is a result of _________ due to various causes such as _______,_______,______

heart failure "Pump failure"; myopathy; cardiac valves issues; arrhythmias.

8

Extra-cardiac obstructive shock is secondary to _______ or ________

Tension pneumothorax ; pulmonary emboli; Pulmonary HTN

9

3 types of distributive shock are:

Septic; anaphylaxis, neurogenic

10

Distributive shock results from excessive _______, therefore there is low ________. Patients will have Cardiac index (normal, low or elevated) ______

Vasodilation; SVR. normal or elevated

11

Hypovolemic, cardiogenic and extra-cardiac obstructive result from poor ______and the patients usually have an elevated _______as a ______mechanism

Cardiac index; SVR; compensatory

12

Pharmacologic agents that increase BP by causing arteriole vasoconstriction are called___

Vasopressors

13

Agents that increase cardiac contractility and therefore _______ are called_________

Cardiac index; inotropes

14

Examples of Catecholamines are :_______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ________

Dobutamine, isoproterenol, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine.

15

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDIs) are

Milrinone and inamrinone

16

Catecholamines or __________ agents ALL act on receptors of the _________nervous system or ______: Remember what ACRONYM

sympathomimetic ; sympathetic (or Adrenergic) SYMP-ADRE

17

Stimulation of the Beta 1 receptors of the heart will result in _______ inotropic meaning _______contractility and ________; also result in chronotropic meaning _______in heart rate ; dromotropic meaning ________in conduction of impulse

positive; increase; cardiac index; increase; increase

18

Stimulation of Beta 2 receptors of the heart will result in _______ ____ _____ which can result in _______ and a decrease in ________

Smooth muscle relaxation; vasodilation; SVR

19

Stimulation of alpha receptors of the heart will result in ___________and an increase in ________and ______ but can cause a reduction of ______to the increase in _______

vasoconstriction; SVR; BP; Cardiac index; afterload

20

For phosphodiesterase inhibitors --> the inhibition of ___________leads to the inhibition of the breakdown of ____ _____ _______. This results in increase in ______ ______ therefore increase ________and venous and arterial ______(decrease _____ and ____)

Phosphodiesterase; cyclic adenosine monophosphate; myocardial contractility; cardiac index; dilation; preload and SVR

21

There are 3 vasopressin receptors

V1, V2, V3

22

Activation of V1 receptors results in ________ of systemic, splanchnic, renal and coronary arteries via activation of ______ resulting in an increase in _______ ________

vasoconstriction; voltage-gated calcium channels; intracellular calcium

23

Activation of V2 receptors results in _______Effect of vasopressin

antidiuretic effect

24

Vasopression V3 receptors are located in the _________ _____ gland and Activation of V3 receptors results in secretion of __________ Hormone

anterior pituitary; adrenocorticotropin

25

Unlike ____________ the actions of vasopressin may be preserved in _________ and ________

catecholamines; hypoxia; acidosis

26

The Half life of catecholamines is ____ minutes and maximum concentration is achieved in ____ minutes

1-2 ; 10

27

Dobutamine acts on ____ and _____ receptors and with ______HR , ______CI, and ______SVR

B1 and B2, increase; increase; increase

28

Norepinephrine acts on _____ but more on ____ receptors. Will produce variable effects on _____, will have no effect or decrease _______, _______SVR and _____MAP

B1; alpha; HR; CI; Increase; increase

29

Milrinone half life in a patient with normal renal function is

2 hours

30

Vasopression elimination half life is _______minutes

15 minutes